22 m trademark dispute edit In 2012 Social Enterprise uk ran the 'not In Our Name' campaign against m, a global software and crm company, that had begun using the term 'social enterprise' to describe its products and had applied for 'social enterprise' trademarks. The campaign was supported by similar organisations in the us (the social Enterprise Alliance canada, south Africa, and Australia. An open letter was sent to the ceo and Chairman of m asking m to stop using the term 'social enterprise'. It was signed by people and organisations around the world, including Muhammad Yunus ( Grameen Bank founder and Nobel peace Prize laureate richard. Wilkinson and Kate pickett (co-authors of The Spirit level ). Salesforce said they would withdraw applications to trademark the term 'social enterprise and remove any references to 'social enterprise' in its marketing materials in the future. 23 Hybrid Forms edit Organizations that do not take the distinct form of either a private, public, or non-profit organization are classified as hybrid organizations.
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Currently there is not a widely accepted, standard definition for the term, and descriptions vary in level of detail. There is an emphasis on change agents for social thesis enterpreneurship, in contrast to the organizational focus of social enterprises. Social entrepreneurship usually takes place in the non-profit sector, with a focus on creating and implementing new solutions. 21 Social Impact. Social Enterprise edit social impact and social enterprise are not the same. Social impact may refer to the overall effects of a business, but a business that has social impact may or may not be a social enterprise. Social enterprises have socially bound mission statements and operate with the goal of solving a social problem as a part of their mission. Social Enterprise funding edit socially responsible investing (SRI) seeks to maximize both financial gain and social impact. 3 Social Enterprises resumes often use for-profit business strategies to fund their social change. The methods in which these social Enterprise's create sustainable revenue streams differ from social business to social business, but all share the goal of abandoning the need for government or donor support. Gregory dee's and Beth Anderson discuss this difference in funding strategies as the innovation that differentiates the social enterprise from the traditional non-profit actor.
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is a practice that businesses can use to be conscious of the social and environmental impacts their activities ere are a variety of csr markers, such as accountability and internal/external elements. Social enterprises place a lot of emphasis on external social responsibility as a result of their social objectives, so social impact is built into the organization. However, there had been debate on whether or not social enterprises place enough emphasis on internal csr. Internal csr includes human resources/capital management, health and safety standards, adaptation to innovation and change, and the quality of management within the organization. 20 Since a large majority of social enterprises do not have sufficient funding, they are unable presentation to pay competitive wages to their employees, and as a result they have to resort to other (non-financial) techniques to recruit employees. Many managers utilize the social component of the social enterprise's dual mission/purpose for this. 8 Social Enterprise. Social Entrepreneurship edit like social enterprise, social entrepreneurship has a variety of existing definitions.
The social enterprise model offers non-profit organizations an alternative to reliance on charitable donations. This may allow them to increase their funding and sustainability, and assist them in the pursuit of their social mission. However, two potential issues emerge: 1) distraction from the social goal in pursuit of a contradictory business activities and 2) inadequate skills, resources, and capabilites for the adoption of the social enterprise model. 7 Social Enterprise. Corporate social Responsibility edit many commercial enterprises would consider themselves to have social objectives, but commitment estate to these objectives is motivated by the perception that such commitment will real ultimately make the enterprise more financially valuable. These are organisations that might be more properly said to be operating corporate responsibility programs. Social enterprises differ in that their commitment to impact is central to the mission of the business. Some may not aim to offer any benefit to their investors, except where they believe that doing so will ultimately further their capacity to realize their social and environmental goals, although there is a huge amount of variation in forms and activities.
In this context, a social enterprise is a legal entity that through its entity choice chooses to forgo a profit motive. A fourth definition asserts that a social enterprise consists of a community of dedicated individuals that are continuously thinking about social impact, and as a result employ business and management techniques to approach social causes. 3 Social Enterprise. Nonprofit edit social enterprises are not only a structural element of a non-profit. A large portion of social enterprises are non-profits; however, there are also for-profit social enterprises. 3 Social enterprises are often regarded erroneously as nonprofit organisations, although many do take on a nonprofit legal form and are treated in academic literature on the subject as a branch or sub-set of nonprofit activity (especially when contrasted with Social Businesses). 19 Social enterprises in the nonprofit form can earn income for their goods or services; they are typically regarded as non-profits that use business strategies to generate revenue to support their charitable missions. 19 In recent years, many non-profits have chosen to take on social enterprise models as it has become increasingly difficult to obtain financing from outside sources.
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The social Enterprise journal has been followed by the journal of Social Entrepreneurship, and coverage of issues pertaining to the social economy and social enterprise are also covered by the journal of co-operative studies and by the Annals of co-operative and Public Economics. The european Social Enterprise research Network (emes) and the co-operative research Unit (CRU) at the Open University have also published research into social enterprise. The skoll World Forum, organised jointly by Oxford and duke universities, brings together researchers and practitioners from across the globe. Terminology edit The term 'social enterprise' has a mixed and contested heritage due to its philanthropic roots in the United States, and cooperative roots in the United Kingdom, european Union and Asia. In the us, the term is associated with 'doing charity by doing trade rather than 'doing charity while doing trade'. In other countries, there is a much stronger emphasis on community organising and democratic control of capital and mutual principles, rather than philanthropy.
18 In recent years, there has been a rise in the concept of social purpose businesses which pursue social responsibility directly, or raise funds for charitable purposes. Muhammad Yunus, founder of the Grameen Bank, believes that a social enterprise should be modeled exclusively to achieve a social goal. Another view is that social enterprises should not be motivated by profit, rather profit motives should be secondary to the primary social goal. A second definition provided by The social Enterprise Alliance (SEA) defines a social enterprise to be an organization that uses business methods to execute its social/environmental your mission. According to this definition, the social enterprise's social mission is to help the disadvantaged, which is executed by directly providing goods or services (not money). Additionally, earned revenue must be the main source of income for the organization/venture. A third definition is purely based on how the organization is legally structured, or formed as a legal entity.
in the uk, while state failure is emphasized in the United States. 9 Muhammad Yunus edit muhammad Yunus ( Grameen Bank founder and 2006 Nobel peace Prize laureate) used the term "social enterprise" in his book banker to the poor, published in 2009. Muhammad Yunus used the term referring to microfinance. His work in this which? area led to him to receive the nobel peace Prize in 2006. 13 not in citation given Adoption of social enterprise across institutions edit In the us, harvard, stanford and Princeton universities built on the work of Ashoka, and each made contributions to the development of the social entrepreneurship field through project initiatives and publications.
14 15 the field of social enterprise studies has not yet developed firm philosophical foundations, but its advocates and its academic community are much more engaged with critical pedagogies (e.g. Paulo Freire ) and critical traditions in research (e.g. Critical theory / institutional theory / Marxism ) in comparison to private-sector business education. 17 teaching related to the social economy draws explicitly from the works of Robert Owen, proudhon and Karl Marx, with works by bourdieu and Putnam informing the debate over social capital and its relationship to the competitive advantage of mutuals. This intellectual foundation, however, does not extend as strongly into the field of social entrepreneurship, where there is more influence from writings on liberalism and entrepreneurship by joseph Schumpeter, in conjunction with the emerging fields of social innovation, actornetwork theory and complexity theory to explain. Social enterprise (unlike private enterprise) is not taught exclusively in a business school context, as it is increasingly connected to the health sector and to public-service delivery. However, Oxford University's said Business School does host the skoll World Forum, a global event focused on social entrepreneurs. Publications edit The first international social-enterprise journal was established in 2005 by social Enterprise london (with support from the london development Association).
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Eikenberry kluver, liu ko, and Mullins.) have argued that with this may have come about due to the marketization of the non-profit sector, which resulted in many non-profit firms placing more focus on generating income. 7 need"tion to verify 8 Other scholars have used institutional theory to conclude that non-profits have adopted social enterprise models, because such models have become legitimized by whom? 9 Some organizations have evolved into social enterprises, while some were established as social enterprises. 8 Social enterprise has a long history around the world, though under different names and with different characteristics. 10 page needed The first description of a social enterprise as a democratically-owned and -run trading organisation that is financially independent, has social objectives and operates in an environmentally responsible way, was put forward by Freer Spreckley in the uk in 1978 and later written. 11 One of the first examples of a social enterprise, in the form of a social cooperative, can be traced back to the victorian era. 12 like social cooperatives, social enterprises are believed by whom? to have emerged as a result of state and market failure. However, market failure is emphasized by whom?
5 The organizational and legal principles embedded essay in social enterprises are believed by whom? to have come from non-profit organizations. Originally, non-profit organizations relied on governmental and public support, but more recently when? they have started to rely on profits from their own social change operations. The social Enterprise Alliance (SEA) defines the following as reasons for this transition: 6 the increase in non-profit operating costs the decline in government and public philanthropic support increased competition due to growth in the charitable sector the expansion in the demand for non-profit provided. to have been created by whom? as a result of the evolution of non-profits. Citation needed This formation process resulted in a type of hybrid organization that does not have concrete organizational boundaries.
specific purpose and trade commercially. All operate to re-invest profits into the community. They have large memberships who are customers or supporters of the organisations key purpose. There are village co-operatives in India and pakistan that were established as far back as 1904. Non-government Organisation (NGOs) and Charities, there are many ngos and charities that operate a commercial consultancy and training enterprise, or subsidiary trading enterprises, such as Oxfam. The profits are used to provide salaries for people who provide free services to specific groups of people or to further the social or environmental aims of the organisation. Origins edit, the idea of a social enterprise as a distinct concept first developed in the late 1970s in the uk as an alternative commercial organisational model to private businesses, co-operatives and public enterprise. The concept, at that time, had five main principles 4 divided into 3 values and 2 paradigm shifts. The 2 paradigm shifts were: a common ownership legal structure where members/owners have one voting share and different forms of investment democratic governance, where each worker/community resident is a member with one vote The 3 principles were: trading and financially viable independence creating social wealth.
Trading roles Enterprises, worker/employee owned trading enterprises, co-operatives and collectives. These vary from very large enterprises such as John Lewis Partnership in the uk and the mondragon co-operatives in Spain, to medium sized enterprises owned by their staff with traditional management hierarchies and pay differentials, to quite small worker co-operatives with only a few director/employees. Within the Trading Enterprises there are employee owned enterprises and membership owned enterprises. Saving and loans organisations such as credit unions, micro credit organisations, co-operative banks and revolving loan funds are membership owned social enterprises. Credit Unions were first established in the 1850s in Germany and spread internationally. Co-operative banks have likewise been around since the 1870s, owned as a subsidiary of a membership co-operative. In recent times Microcredit organisations have sprung up in many developing countries to great effect. Local currency exchanges and social value exchanges are also being established.
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For a broader coverage of this topic, see. A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in financial, social and environmental well-being—this may include maximizing social impact alongside profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form (depending in which country the entity exists and the legal forms available) of a co-operative, mutual organization, a disregarded entity, 1 a social business, a benefit corporation, a community interest. They can also take more conventional structures. Social enterprises have both business goals and social goals. As a result, their social goals are embedded in their objective, which differentiates them from other organizations and corporations. 2, a social enterprise's main purpose is to promote, encourage, and make social change. 3, guaranteed contents, types of Social Enterprises edit, social enterprises can generally be classified by the following categories listed below, although new sectors and areas arise as the field continues to evolve. Their shared common thread is that they all operate to achieve a balanced financial, social and environmental set of objectives.