The saving (in the camp-"creepy posts were in the mine a lot, but they did not appoint a "thief in law" (as in many other camps and engineer auerbach. And "thieves" had a wish to "soak" engineer and deliver to dispose of their rights: the coal mine - no logging, here without a professional can not. How much Moses naumovich saved I don't know. Personally, i remember five people, and hearsay - a few more. Among them was, for example, writer, hero of the civil war in Spain Alexey eisner. And Professor Elicona.
My president Was Black, the Atlantic
After full rehabilitation of all "cases" in ). Sounds smooth - "worked but actually naumovich Moses, when he expired, "tried" two times. But under the new investigation, and having regular periods, and then "eternal exile, he remained "beskonvoynyh chief ventilation shaft. From the commander of ventilation depended on presentation hundreds of lives - and the miners, and staff, and armed guards from the nkvd-schnick also sometimes required to descend into the mine. Note that in 1961, after the release of his grandfather retired, his successor, was so incompetent that mine methane explosion, and killed several dozen people. In Stalin's time, loss of life for the nkvd's superiors in itself meant a bit, but emergency on coal mine meant the failure of the plan and the possible demotion, so, apparently, more political "camp" case against Moses naumovich was only aim tighter grip indispensable. And, of course, periodically to show him who's boss, to have had the upper hand. Irreplaceable people, as we see, there were then, despite the famous words of comrade Stalin. Their indispensability grandfather did not hesitate to use, but very specific - saved people. In a literal sense. They were jews, just intelligent people, for whom work in the pit meant either death or disability.
It became easier in 1943, when the Ural somehow earned evacuated industry and presentation it needed coal. Here and supply has improved considerably, and there was an American "lend-lease" stew. However, no more or less significant "sensitive" indulgence was not. All the Stalin years Vorkuta was a huge area. In the middle of the city and beat prisoners with rifle butts and shot - both in the air and on the "defeat". Periodically, house searches took place, including the exiles. Local radio (and through the speakers) consistently reported, whom many days in the box provided and for what offense (up to the fact that the exiles citizen so-and-so was hiding under the bed C/to so-and-so). Before the war were often the message and the shootings, but later they became less - "labor" began to save. Moses averbach was the chief of ventilation 40th mine almost immediately after the convoy to vorkuta and in this post he worked until 1961 (i.e.
What is coal mines, drifts and slaughter everyone knows, but sees them more often as the general type of underground tunnels. In fact, in the listing bottom is impossible to stand at full height, a narrow passage in the ground with incredibly stale air filled with coal dust. Now the miners at least work in masks and respirators, and then with the protection of labour was still "not very". Moreover, the cons - what them, enemies of the people, sorry? However, the spare had when the war was lost Donbass, and the pechora coal basin is the sole supplier of coal, it is extremely necessary for the country. But the terrible winter of, yet no one is spared, food supplies were any, and the prisoners were dying masses. Outside the city were dug several trenches, and there was a sleigh pile of corpses.
In s, by the way, and the only one. From his early thirties and began the city of Vorkuta, received its name after the river, which was Mine. All the old vorkutintsy said: "I live on Vorkuta" - that is, as though not in the city, and on the river. The town is situated North of the Arctic circle and around the tundra, but we should not be perceived as smooth expanse of the plain. Vorkuta river flows in a deep depression between fairly high hills and houses "run down" to the river terraces. The centre of Vorkuta in the early sixties "crossed" the river, and now there is quite modern apartment buildings and village mine is still the same as it was. According to information received in the mid-eighties, survived even the wooden two-storey house, where my grandmother lived with my father (grandmother in 1937 has been repressed for the first husband, a german Wolfgang Alfredovich kavelmahera, "eternal exile and was forced to take and four year. Now, of course, piles of mines moved far out of town and area disappeared from the eyes. At the same time the city was surrounded by all the camps, each shaft (acting was about twenty-five) was individual camp sites, and it turned out that the whole city was one big area.
A letter to my nephew - progressive
The middle of the 1930-ies (Tula link). He married for the first time back in Moscow, and "Tula" times his son Yury was born. Chat with his son Moses naumovich almost no time is over a link, and he returned to moscow, where he was immediately arrested. For the former exiles it happens automatically - the yard was in 1937. Moses naumovich sat under investigation for more than two years, he was beaten, broken finger, which merged the curve (bus unprofessional laid in the chamber). When I was a child my grandfather told it, i remember, was terrified, and this slightly crooked finger at me still before my eyes.
Santa farm got eight years, and he visited a few lumbering camps Komi assr, in 1943 came to vorkuta, that saved him. The country was in desperate need of coal, and mining engineer could not be used as intended. I've never been there (my father in the late 1990s were going to go there, but never met). But I still have a feeling that i know this city very well. Anyway, town ry'dnik (accent for some reason on the first syllable) is the oldest city district.
"All so" I feel like a family-related averbach not less (perhaps even more)than vested. Moses naumovich - my grandfather, and another I had never perceived, while in my childhood, i remember, not once explained the difference between the "grandfather wolf" (Wolfgang Alfredovich kavelmaher, my mother's grandfather on his father's side, whom I had seen a couple of times. But back to the story of Moses naumovich. He graduated from a certain CommercialAcademy, before the revolution are the elite of merchant standards. Excellent education grandfather received and further, ending superprestizhny at the time of the "Institute of national economy named after Plekhanov. By profession he was a mining engineer and in built the moscow metro.
Student group Moses naumovich. He sits second on the left. Sad pun: few of these students soon not sit. At this time the graduates of the student group, where he studied Moses naumovich, decided to create a kind of "social insurance scheme for mutual assistance to needy classmates. Soon some "well-wisher" hit the nkvd, the money collected for the needs of the Trotskyist movement. The first term of his grandfather, despite liter krtd counter-revolutionary Trotskyist activities, much worse than mrc was not at all time to three years of exile in Tula, where he worked in a construction office. In those days every engineer had a very broad specialization. Moses averbach (front row, left) on tour in Yasnaya polyana.
Linda's biography, windbreak house
Naumovich I can not call her. But it so happened that I was with Moses. Naumovich favorite grandson (his own grandson, my age ten years, he had seen once in life and essay for some reason did not show willingness to continue communication). And the grandfather, an outstanding man with a strong will and supermarket an iron character, which had a tremendous spiritual and psychological effect on my grandmother Elena Alexandrovna, and my father had a lot to do for. And speaking of relatives and ancestors, i remember this episode: fourteen or fifteen (i.e. Approximately 1978) I was concerned with the question of their origin and took all the grandmothers and grandfathers "interview" about the person of your ancestors and relatives they remember who was who and what they were doing. I "interviewed" grandmother Elena Alexandrovna, and Moses naumovich was not going: like his ancestors - not mine. And he was hurt and he insisted that I wrote about him.
Known only the fate of the two brothers Anna davidovna trapped in Russia: Abram was shot in 1937, and. Boris "lucky" - he died a natural death in the sixties. And Moses naumovich had two sisters: Cecilia naumovna (she had not seen in 1972 because of this, hit by a car) and Eugene naumovna (she grandfather survived for a few years). I always called "uncle monya. The fact that Moses naumovich was the second husband of my grandmother, Elena. Alexandrovna kavelmaher (nee kolobashkin) and, accordingly, no father and stepfather, my father Wolfgang volfgangovicha kavelmahera. So in early childhood and complicated - not "grandfather"and "uncle". It turns out that, formally, paperless all the ancestors and relatives of Moses.
were not allowed to live outside the pale of settlement. His father naum Izrailevich auerbach, died March 8, 1916, 44 years old. Mother, Khan-din israelevna (by passport Anna davidovna nee blumberg, lived until 1968. On her grave, and written and Khan-din israelevna, and Anna. She was the daughter tsadeka (Jewish scribes) from kovno,. She had many brothers and sisters (about thirteen but the majority remained in Lithuania, and when soviet troops in 1940 occupied the baltic. States, none of each other to find no time.
Iranian revolution and the hostage crises. It wasn't ideal to be Iranian in the us at that point. (I never got beat up, though I was threatened a few times. Then again, i got threatened for being me as reviews well,.) I developed a reluctance to explain after that. Zagraevsky, my grandfather Moses averbach, attention! The following text was translated from the russian original by the computer program and has not yet been edited. So it can be used only for general introduction.
A son speaks out by moses Farrow
My name, "Bijan with Parsia is Iranian (my middle name, "John isn't, but I don't generally use it except in signatures as an initial and in initials). "Bijan" is the name. Iranian epic hero, who, as far as I can tell, was mainly heroically imprisoned (note the telling typo ". Bijan was the son Giw, a great worrier. my father was, indeed, an annoyingly great worrier). My last name, so the story goes, was a contraction (by my father) of a really long (and pretentious) name coined by my grandfather. From ages 6 to around 10, i didn't mind explaining my name (to teachers, for example). Most people thought it was French. But then came the.