"Roman avvisi: Information and Politics in the seventeenth Century." court and Politics in Papal Rome. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. 212,214,216-217 Thomas Schroeder, "The Origins of the german Press in The politics of Information in Early modern Europe edited by Brendan dooley and Sabrina baron. (2001) 123-50, especially page 123 paul Arblaster, posts, newsletters, newspapers: England in a european system of communications media history (2005) 111-2 pp: 21-36 carmen Espejo, "European Communication Networks in the early modern Age: A new framework of interpretation for the birth of journalism media history. Censer, and Harriet Ritvo, "The periodical press in eighteenth-century English and French society: a cross-cultural approach." Comparative studies in Society and History 233 (1981 464-490. jack censer, The French press in the age of Enlightenment (2002). robert Darnton and Daniel Roche, eds., revolution in Print: the Press in France, (1989) keith Michael baker,., The French revolution and the Creation of Modern Political Culture: The transformation of the political culture, (1989).
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The result, they argue, is that journalism today is characterized by four themes: personalization, globalization, localization, and pauperization. 25 Historiography edit journalism historian david Nord has argued that in the 1960s and 1970s: "In journalism history and media history, a new generation of scholars. Criticised traditional histories of the media for being too insular, too decontextualised, too uncritical, too captive to the needs of professional training, and too enamoured well of the biographies of men and media organizations." 26 In 1974, james. Carey identified the 'problem of journalism History'. The field was dominated by a whig interpretation of journalism history. "This views journalism history as the slow, steady expansion resume of freedom and knowledge from the political press to the commercial press, the setbacks into sensationalism and yellow journalism, the forward thrust into muck raking and social e entire story is framed by those large impersonal. 27 o'malley says the criticism went too far, because there was much of value in the deep scholarship of the earlier period. 28 see also edit sources edit references edit shannon. Martin and david. "The function of Newspapers in Society: a global Perspective (Praeger, 2003).
Much later Argentina founded its newspapers in buenos Aires: la prensa in 1869 and la nacion in 1870. 24 Radio and television edit margaret main article: History of broadcasting The history of radio broadcasting begins in the 1920s, and reached its apogee in the 1930s and 1940s. Experimental television was being studied before the 2nd world war, became operational in the late 1940s, and became widespread in the 1950s and 1960s, largely but not entirely displacing radio. Internet journalism edit further information: Online journalism and online newspapers The rapidly growing impact of the Internet, especially after 2000, brought "free" news and classified advertising to audiences that no longer cared for paid subscriptions. The Internet undercut the business model of many daily newspapers. Bankruptcy loomed across the. And did hit such major papers as the rocky mountain news (Denver the Chicago Tribune and the los Angeles Times, among many others. Chapman and Nuttall find that proposed solutions, such as multiplatforms, paywalls, pr-dominated news gathering, and shrinking staffs have not resolved the challenge.
The Anglo-Indian papers promoted purely British interests. Englishman Robert Knight (18251890) founded two important English-language newspapers that reached a broad Indian audience, the golf times of India and The Statesman. They promoted nationalism in India, as Knight introduced the people to the power of the press and made them familiar with political issues and the political process. 22 Latin America edit British influence extended globally through its colonies and its informal business relationships with merchants in major cities. They needed up-to-date market and political information. The diario de pernambuco was founded in Recife, brazil, in 1825. 23 El Mercurio was founded in Valparaiso, chile, in 1827. The most influential newspaper in Peru, el Comercio, first appeared in 1839. The jornal do commercio was established in rio de janeiro, brazil, in 1827.
16 17 The historiography of the danish press is rich with scholarly studies. Historians have made insights into danish political, social and cultural history, finding that individual newspapers are valid analytical entities, which can be studied in terms of source, content, audience, media, and effect. 18 main article: History of Russian journalism United States edit main articles: History of American journalism and History of American newspapers China edit main articles: History of newspaper publishing China, and List of newspapers in China India edit main articles: History of newspaper publishing India. 19 On may 30, 1826 Udant Martand (The rising Sun the first Hindi-language newspaper published in India, started from Calcutta (now Kolkata published every tuesday. 20 21 maulawi muhammad Baqir in 1836 founded the first Urdu-language newspaper the delhi Urdu akhbar. India's press in the 1840s was a motley collection of small-circulation daily or weekly sheets printed on rickety presses. Few extended beyond their small communities and seldom tried to unite the many castes, tribes, and regional subcultures of India.
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University officials handled the professional censorship, but in 1770 Denmark became one of the first nations of the world to provide for press freedom; it ended in 1799. The press in 17951814, led by intellectuals and civil servants, called out for a more just and modern society, and spoke out for the oppressed tenant farmers against the power of the old aristocracy. 14 In 1834, the first liberal newspaper appeared, one that gave much more emphasis to actual news content rather than opinions. The newspapers championed the revolution of 1848 in Denmark. The new constitution of 1849 liberated the danish press. Newspapers flourished in the second half of the 19th century, usually tied to one or another political party or labor union.
Modernization, bringing in new features and mechanical techniques, appeared after 1900. The total circulation was 500,000 daily in 1901, more than doubling.2 million in 1925. The german occupation brought informal censorship; some offending newspaper buildings were simply blown up by the nazis. During the war, the underground produced 550 newspapers—small, surreptitiously printed sheets that encouraged sabotage and resistance. 15 The appearance of a dozen editorial cartoons ridiculing Mohammed set off Muslim outrage and violent threats around the world. (see: Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy ) The muslim community decided the caricatures in the copenhagen newspaper Jyllands-Posten in September 2005 represented another instance of Western animosity toward Islam, and were so sacriligious that the perpetrators deserved severe punishment.
After 1800 Napoleon reimposed strict censorship. 11 Magazines flourished after Napoleon left in 1815. Most were based in Paris and most emphasized literature, poetry and stories. They served religious, cultural and political communities. In times of political crisis they expressed and helped shape the views of their readership and thereby were major elements in the changing political culture.
12 For example, there were eight Catholic periodicals in 1830 in Paris. None were officially owned or sponsored by the Church and they reflected a range of opinion among educated Catholics about current issues, such as the 1830 July revolution that overthrew the bourbon monarchy. Several were strong supporters of the bourbon kings, but all eight ultimately urged support for the new government, putting their appeals in terms of preserving civil order. They often discussed the relationship between church and state. Generally they urged priests to focus on spiritual matters and not engage in politics. Patricia dougherty says this process created a distance between the Church and the new monarch and enabled Catholics to develop a new understanding of church-state relationships and the source of political authority. 13 Britain edit main article: History of journalism in the United Kingdom Germany edit main articles: History of German journalism and History of newspaper publishing Germany denmark edit danish news media first appeared in the 1540s, when handwritten fly sheets reported on the news. In 1666, Anders Bording, the father of Danish journalism, began a state paper. The royal privilege to bring out a newspaper was issued to joachim wielandt in 1720.
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He disseminated the weekly news of music, dance and Parisian society from 16 in database verse, in what he called a gazette burlesque, assembled in three volumes of la muse historique (1650, 1660, 1665). The French press lagged a generation behind the British, for they catered to the needs the aristocracy, while the newer British counterparts were oriented toward the middle and working classes. 9 Periodicals were censored by the central government in Paris. They were not totally quiescent politically—often they criticized Church abuses and bureaucratic ineptitude. They supported the monarchy and they played at most a small role in stimulating the revolution. 10 During the revolution new periodicals played central roles as propaganda organs for various factions. Jean-paul Marat (17431793) was the most prominent editor. His l'ami du peuple advocated vigorously for the rights of the lower classes against the enemies of the people marat hated; it closed when he was assassinated.
Favorite topics included wars, military affairs, diplomacy, and court business and gossip. the national governments in France and England began printing official newsletters. 6 In 1622 the first English-language weekly magazine, "A current of General News" status was published and distributed in England in an 8- to 24-page quarto format. The first newspaper in France, the gazette de France, was established in 1632 by the king's physician Theophrastus Renaudot (1586-1653 with the patronage of louis xiii. 8 All newspapers were subject to prepublication censorship, and served as instruments of propaganda for the monarchy. La gazette, 26 December 1786 Under the ancien regime, the most prominent magazines were mercure de France, journal des sçavans, founded in 1665 for scientists, and gazette de France, founded in 1631. Jean Loret was one of France's first journalists.
The first gazettes appeared in German cities, notably the weekly. Relation aller fuernemmen und gedenckwürdigen Historien collection of all distinguished and memorable news in Strasbourg starting in 1605. The avisa relation oder zeitung was published in Wolfenbüttel from 1609, and gazettes soon were established in Frankfurt (1615 berlin (1617) and Hamburg (1618). By 1650, 30 German cities had active gazettes. 4 A semi-yearly news chronicle, in Latin, the mercurius Gallobelgicus, was published at Cologne between 15, but it was not the model for other publications. The news circulated between newsletters through well-established channels in 17th century europe. Antwerp was the hub of two networks, one linking France, britain, germany, and the netherlands; the other linking Italy Spain and Portugal.
Notizie scritte written notices which cost one gazetta, a venetian coin of the time, the name of which eventually came to mean "newspaper". These avvisi were handwritten newsletters and proposal used to convey political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently throughout, europe, more specifically, italy, during the early modern era (1500-1800) —sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers. However, none of these publications fully met the modern criteria for proper newspapers, as they were typically not intended for the general public and restricted to a certain range of topics. Early publications played into the development of what would today be recognized as the newspaper, which came about around 1601. Around the 15th and 16th centuries, in England and France, long news accounts called "relations" were published; in Spain they were called "relaciones". Single event news publications were printed in the broadsheet format, which was often posted. These publications also appeared as pamphlets and small booklets (for longer narratives, often written in a letter format often containing woodcut illustrations. Literacy rates were low in comparison to today, and these news publications were often read aloud (literacy and oral culture were, in a sense, existing side by side in this scenario).
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The history of journalism, or the development of the gathering and transmitting of news spans the growth of technology and trade, marked by the advent of specialized techniques for gathering and disseminating information on a regular basis that has caused, as one history of journalism. Before the printing press was invented, word of mouth was the primary source of news. Returning merchants, sailors and travelers brought news back to the mainland, and this was then picked up by pedlars and travelling players and spread from town to town. Ancient scribes often wrote this information down. This transmission of news was highly unreliable, and died out with the invention of the printing press. Newspapers (and to a lesser extent magazines) have always been the primary medium of journalists since the 18th century, radio and television in the 20th century, and the Internet in the 21st century. 1, contents, owl early journalism edit, europe edit, in 1556, the government of, venice first published the monthly.