History of english language essay

history of english language essay

The history of english

The oïl languages  from Latin hoc ille, "that is it"  occupied northern France, the oc languages  from Latin hoc, "that"  southern France, and the si languages  from Latin sic, "thus"  the Italian and Iberian peninsulas. Modern linguists typically add a third group within France around lyon, the "Arpitan" or " Franco-Provençal language whose modern word for "yes" is ouè. The gallo-romance group in the north of France, the langue d'oïl like picard, walloon, and Francien, were influenced by the germanic languages spoken by the Frankish invaders. From the time period of Clovis i on, the Franks extended their rule over northern gaul. Over time, the French language developed from either the oïl language found around Paris and Île-de-France (the Francien theory) or from a standard administrative language based on common characteristics found in all Oïl languages (the lingua franca theory). Langue d'oc, the languages which use oc or òc for "yes is the language group in the south of France and northern Spain. These languages, such as Gascon and Provençal, have relatively little Frankish influence.

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Portuguese framboesa 'raspberry' and Spanish frambuesa are from French). 23 Philologists such as Pope (1934) estimate that still perhaps fifteen percent of the vocabulary of modern French derives from Germanic summary sources, though the proportion was larger in Old French, as the language was consequently re-latinised and partly Italianised by clerics and grammarians in the. Nevertheless, a large number of words like haïr "to hate" ( Latin odiare italian odiare, spanish odiar, occitan asirar ) and honte "shame" ( Latin vĕrēcundia occitan vergonha, italian vergogna, spanish vergüenza ) remain common. Estimated that German was spoken as a second tongue by public officials in western Austrasia and neustria as late as the 850s, and that it completely disappeared as a spoken language from these regions only during the 10th century, 24 though some traces of Germanic. The normans and terms from the low countries edit In 1204 ad, the duchy of Normandy was integrated into the Crown lands of France, and many words were introduced into the French language from Norman of which about 150 words of Scandinavian origin 25 are. Most of these words have to do with the sea and seafaring: abraquer, alque, bagage, bitte, cingler, équiper (to equip flotte, fringale, girouette, guichet, hauban, houle, hune, mare, marsouin, mouette, quille, raz, siller, touer, traquer, turbot, vague, varangue, varech. Others pertain to farming and daily life: accroupir, amadouer, bidon, bigot, brayer, brette, cottage, coterie, crochet, duvet, embraser, fi, flâner, guichet, haras, harfang, harnais, houspiller, marmonner, mièvre, nabot, nique, quenotte, raccrocher, ricaner, rincer, rogue. Likewise, words borrowed from Dutch deal mainly with trade, or are nautical in nature, but not always so: affaler, amarrer, anspect, bar (sea-bass bastringuer, bière (beer blouse (bump botte, bouée, bouffer, boulevard, bouquin, cague, cahute, caqueter, choquer, diguer, drôle, dune, frelater, fret, grouiller, hareng, hère. Bolus bouline, bousin, boxer, cambuse, cliver, chiffe/chiffon, drague, drain, est, équiper (to set sail gourmet, groom, héler, interlope, merlin, nord, ouest, pique-nique, potasse, rade, rhum, sloop, sonde, sud, turf, yacht. Langue d'oïl edit see also: Old French The medieval Italian poet Dante, in his Latin de vulgari eloquentia, classified the romance languages into three groups by their respective words for "yes nam alii oc, alii si, alii vero dicunt ask oil, "For some say oc, others.

On the first other hand, a common word like l aqua occitan aigue became of ewe f eau 'water' (and évier sink likely influenced by the os or ohg word pronunciation aha (PG * ahwo ). In addition, two new phonemes that no longer existed in Vulgar Latin were added: h and w ( of g(u)-, onf w-. Vl altu of halt 'high' (influenced by olf *hauh ; Italian, Spanish alto ; Occitan naut vl vespa f guêpe (onf wespe ; Picard wespe ) 'wasp' (influenced by olf *waspa ; Occitan vèspa ; Italian vespa ; Spanish avispa l viscus f gui 'mistletoe'. It is to be noted Italian and Spanish words of Germanic origin borrowed from French or directly from Germanic also retain this gw and g,. In these examples, we notice a clear consequence of bilingualism, which frequently alters the initial syllable of the latin. There is also the converse example, where the latin word influences the germanic one: framboise 'raspberry' from olf *brambasi (cf. Ohg brāmberi brombeere 'mulberry e brambleberry ; *basi 'berry'. basi, dutch bes 'berry conflated with ll fraga or of fraie strawberry, which explains the shift to f from b, and in turn the final -se of framboise turned fraie into fraise ( Occitan fragosta 'raspberry italian fragola 'strawberry'.

history of english language essay

Variants and dialects of the, english language

The oaths of Strasbourg, sequence of saint Eulalia ). 20 The new speech diverged quite markedly from the latin, with which it was plan no longer mutually intelligible. The Old Low Frankish influence is also primarily responsible for the differences between the langue d'oïl and langue d'oc ( Occitan ) as well, because different parts of Northern France remained bilingual in Latin and Germanic for several centuries, 21 corresponding exactly to the places. This Germanic language shaped the popular Latin spoken here and gave it a very distinctive character compared to the other future romance languages. The very first noticeable influence is the substitution of a germanic stress accent for the latin melodic accent, 22 which resulted in diphthongization, distinction between long and short vowels, the loss of the unaccentuated syllable and of final vowels,. Latin decima f dîme ( e dime. Italian decima ; Spanish diezmo vulgar Latin dignitate of deintié ( e dainty. Occitan dinhitat ; Italian dignità ; Spanish dignidad paper vl catena of chaiene ( e chain. Occitan cadena ; Italian catena ; Spanish cadena ).

The syntax shows the systematic presence of a subject pronoun in front of the verb, as in the germanic languages: je vois, tu vois, il voit, while the subject pronoun is optional function of the parameter pro-drop in most other Romance languages (as in Spanish. The inversion of subject-verb to verb-subject to form the interrogative is characteristic of the germanic languages but is not found in any of the major Romance languages, except French (cf. Vous avez un crayon. "do you have a pencil?" ). The adjective placed in front of the noun is typical of Germanic languages, it is more frequent in French than in the other major Romance languages and occasionally compulsory ( belle femme, vieil homme, grande table, petite table when it is optional, it changes the. In Walloon, the order "adjective noun" is the general rule, as in Old French and North Cotentin Norman. Several words calqued or modeled on corresponding terms in Germanic languages ( bienvenue, cauchemar, chagriner, compagnon, entreprendre, manoeuvre, manuscrit, on, pardonner, plupart, sainfoin, tocsin, toujours ). The Frankish language had a determining influence on the birth of Old French, which in part explains why Old French is the earliest attested of the romance languages (e.g.

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history of english language essay

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Colors derived from Frankish and other Germanic languages ( blanc/blanche, bleu, blond/blonde, brun, fauve, statement gris, guède ). Other examples among common words include abandonner, arranger, attacher, auberge, bande, banquet, bâtir, besogne, bille, blesser, bois, bonnet, bord, bouquet, bouter, braise, broderie, brosse, chagrin, choix, chic, cliché, clinquant, coiffe, corroyer, crèche, danser, échaffaud, engage, effroi, épargner, épeler, étal, étayer, étiquette, fauteuil, flan, flatter, flotter. Endings in -ange (Eng. ung ; boulange/boulanger, mélange/mélanger, vidange/vidanger diminutive -on ( oisillon ) many verbs response ending in -ir (2nd group, see french conjugation ) such as affranchir, ahurir, choisir, guérir, haïr, honnir, jaillir, lotir, nantir, rafraîchir, ragaillardir, tarir, etc. Prefix mé(s)- (from Frankish " missa- as in mésentente, mégarde, méfait, mésaventure, mécréant, mépris, méconnaissance, méfiance, médisance ) prefix for-, four- as in forbannir, forcené, forlonger, (se) fourvoyer, etc.

From Frankish fir-, fur- (cf German ver- ; English for- ). Merged with Old French fuers "outside, beyond" from Latin foris. Latin foris was not used as a prefix in Classical Latin, but appears as a prefix in Medieval Latin following the germanic invasions. Prefix en-, em- (which reinforced and merged with Latin in- "in, on, into was extended to fit new formations not previously found in Latin. Influenced or calqued from Frankish * in- and * an-, usually with an intensive or perfective sense: emballer, emblaver, endosser, enhardir, enjoliver, enrichir, envelopper, etc.

Other Celtic words were not borrowed directly, but brought in through Latin, some of which had become commonplace in Latin, as for instance braies "knee-length pants chainse "tunic char "dray, wagon daim "roe deer étain "tin glaive "broad sword manteau "coat vassal "serf, knave". Latin quickly took hold among the urban aristocracy for mercantile, official, and educational reasons, but did not prevail in the countryside until some four or five centuries later, since latin was of little or no social value to the landed gentry and peasantry. The eventual spread of Latin can be attributed to social factors in the late Empire such as the movement from urban-focused power to village-centered economies and legal serfdom. The Franks edit see also: Effect of substrate/superstrate languages From the 3rd century on, western Europe was invaded by germanic tribes from the north and east, and some of these groups settled in gaul. In the history of the French language, the most important of these groups are the Franks in northern France, the Alemanni in the modern German/French border area ( Alsace the burgundians in the Rhône (and the saone ) valley, and the visigoths in the Aquitaine.


The Frankish language had a profound influence on the latin spoken in their respective regions, altering both the pronunciation (especially the vowel system phonemes; e, eu, u, short o ) and the syntax. They also introduced a number of new words ( see list of French words of Germanic origin ). Sources disagree on how much of the vocabulary of modern French (excluding French dialects) comes from Germanic words, ranging from just 500 words (1) 16 (representing loans from ancient Germanic languages: Gothic and Frankish) 17 to 15 of modern vocabulary (representing all Germanic loans. (Note: According to the Académie française, only 5 of French words come from English.) Changes in lexicon / morphology / syntax : the name of the language itself, français, comes from Old French franceis/francesc (compare. . Franciscus ) from the germanic frankisc "french, frankish" from Frank freeman. The Franks referred to their land as Franko(n) which became Francia in Latin in the 3rd century (at that time, an area in Gallia belgica, somewhere in modern-day belgium or the netherlands). The name gaule gaul was also taken from the Frankish * Walholant land of the romans/Gauls. Several terms and expressions associated with their social structure ( baron/baronne, bâtard, bru, chambellan, échevin, félon, féodal, forban, gars/garçon, leude, lige, maçon, maréchal, marquis, meurtrier, sénéchal ). Military terms ( agrès/gréer, attaquer, bière "stretcher dard, étendard, fief, flanc, flèche, gonfalon, guerre, garder, garnison, hangar, heaume, loge, marcher, patrouille, rang, rattraper, targe, trêve, troupe ).

History of the, english, language

Italian cassa, spanish caja ) or captīvus * kaχtivus Occ caitiu, ofr chaitif 12 (mod. Chétif "wretched, feeble. Welsh caeth "bondman, slave. In French and adjoining folk dialects and closely related languages, some 200 words of gaulish origin have been retained, most of which pertain to folk life. These include: land features ( bief "reach, mill race combe "hollow grève "sandy shore reviews lande "heath plant names ( berle "water parsnip bouleau "birch bourdaine "black alder chêne "oak corme "service berry gerzeau "corncockle if "yew vélar/vellar "hedge mustard wildlife ( alouette "lark barge ". Latin caecus ofr cieu,. Ciego, or orbus Occ. Òrb, venetian orbo, romanian orb ).

history of english language essay

seχtan saith "seven * eχtamos history eithaf "extreme". For Romance, compare: Latin fraxinus "ash (tree ofr fraisne (mod. Frêne occitan fraisse, catalan freixe, portuguese freixo, romansch fraissen (vs. Italian frassino, romanian (dial.) frapsin ) Latin lactem "milk" French lait, welsh llaeth, portuguese leite, cat. Llet, piemontese lait, liguro leite (vs. Lach, lombardo làcc, romansch latg, spanish leche ). These two changes sometimes had a cumulative effect in French: Latin capsa * kaχsa caisse (vs.

and the vowel system (e.g. Raising /u /o/ /y /u fronting stressed /a/ /e /ɔ/ /ø/ or/œ. 8 9 Syntactic oddities attributable to gaulish include the intensive prefix ro - re - (cited in the vienna glossary, 5th century) 10 (cf. Luire "to glimmer". Reluire "to shine related to Irish ro - and Welsh rhy - "very emphatic structures, prepositional periphrastic phrases to render verbal aspect, the semantic development of oui "yes aveugle "blind and. Some sound changes are attested. The sound changes /ps/ /xs/ and /pt/ /xt/ appears in a pottery inscription from la Graufesenque ( 1st century ) where the word para xs idi is written for paro ps ides. 11 Similarly, the development - cs - /xs/ /is/ and - ct - /xt/ /it the second common to much of Western Romance languages, also appears in inscriptions,. Divicta divixta, rectugenus rextugenus reitugenus, and is present in Welsh,.

Southern France was also home to a number of other remnant linguistic and ethnic groups including. Iberians along the eastern part of the pyrenees and western Mediterranean coast, remnant. Ligures on the eastern, mediterranean coast and in the alpine areas, Greek colonials in places such as, marseille and. Antibes, 1 and, vascones and. Aquitani (Proto-, basques ) in much of the southwest. 2 3 The gaulish speaking population is held to have continued speaking gaulish even as considerable romanization of the local material culture occurred, with gaulish and Latin coexisting for centuries under Roman rule, and the last attestation of gaulish deemed credible 4 having been written. 5 long The celtic population of gaul had spoken gaulish, which is moderately well attested, with what appears to be wide dialectal variation including one distinctive variety, lepontic.

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French is a, romance language (meaning that it is descended primarily from. Vulgar Latin ) that evolved out of the. Gallo-romance spoken in northern France. The discussion of the history of a language is typically divided into "external history describing the ethnic, political, social, technological, and other changes that affected the languages, and "internal history describing the phonological and grammatical changes undergone by the language itself. Contents, external history edit, roman gaul listing gallia ) edit, before the roman conquest of what is now France. Julius caesar (5852 bc much of present France was inhabited. Celtic-speaking people referred to by the romans.


History of english language essay
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