An empress introduced the hoopskirt, and we know the result. A nobody introduced the bloomer, and we know the result. If eve should come again, in her ripe renown, and reintroduce her quaint styles - well, we know what would happen. And we should be cruelly embarrassed, along at first. The hoopskirt runs its course and disappears. Nobody reasons about. One woman abandons the fashion; her neighbor notices this and follows her lead; this influences the next woman; and so on and so on, and presently the skirt has vanished out of the world, no one knows how nor why, nor cares, for that matter. It will come again, by and by and in due course will go again.
Parallelism: How to Write and Identify parallel Sentences
Was the resentment reasoned out? Was the acceptance reasoned out? The instinct that moves to support conformity did the work. It is our nature to winemaker conform; it is a force which not many can successfully resist. What is its seat? The inborn requirement of self-approval. We all have to bow to that; there are no exceptions. Even the woman who refuses from first to last to wear the hoop skirt comes under that law and is its slave; she could not wear the skirt and have her own approval; and that she must have, she cannot help herself. But as a rule our self-approval has its source in but one place and not elsewhere - the approval of other people. A person of vast consequences can introduce any kind of novelty in dress and the general world will presently adopt it - moved to do it, in the first place, by the natural instinct to passively yield to that vague something recognized as authority, and.
It was his idea that a man conforms to the majority view of his locality by calculation and intention. This happens, diary but I think it is not the rule. It was his idea that there is such a thing as a first-hand opinion; an original opinion; an opinion which is coldly reasoned out in a man's head, by a searching analysis of the facts involved, with the heart unconsulted, and the jury room closed. It may be that such an opinion has been born somewhere, at some time or other, but I suppose it got away before they could catch it and stuff it and put it in the museum. I am persuaded that a coldly-thought-out and independent verdict upon a fashion in clothes, or manners, or literature, or politics, or religion, or any other matter that is projected into the field of our notice and interest, is a most rare thing -. A new thing in costume appears - the flaring hoopskirt, for example - and the passers-by are shocked, and the irreverent laugh. Six months later everybody is reconciled; the fashion has established itself; it is admired, now, and no one laughs. Public opinion resented it before, public opinion accepts it now, and is happy.
It was deeply impressed upon. Not upon my memory, but elsewhere. She had slipped in upon me while i was absorbed and not watching. The black philosopher's idea was that a man is not independent, and cannot afford views which might interfere with his bread and butter. If he would prosper, he must train with the majority; in matters of large moment, like politics and religion, he must think and feel with the bulk of his neighbors, or suffer damage in his social standing and in his business prosperities. He must restrict himself to corn-pone opinions - at least on the surface. He must get his opinions from other people; he must reason out none for himself; he must have no first-hand views. I think jerry was right, in the main, but I think he did summary not go far enough.
But it did not happen; in the distribution of rewards he was overlooked. It is the way, in this world. He interrupted his preaching, now and then, to saw a stick of wood; but the sawing was a pretense -he did it with his mouth; exactly imitating the sound the bucksaw makes in shrieking its way through the wood. But it served its purpose; it kept his master from coming out to see how the work was getting along. I listened to the sermons from the open window of a lumber room at the back of the house. One of his texts was this: "you tell me whar a man gits his corn pone, en I'll tell you what his 'pinions.". I can never forget.
Catholic encyclopedia: Index for
Indeed, mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. Their skin, hair, teeth, fingernails gold and toenails, and facial features are still evident. Their diseases in life, such as smallpox, arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies, are still diagnosable. Even their fatal afflictions are still apparent : a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head; a child king died from polio. The paragraph is now much more coherent. The organization of the information and the links between sentences help readers move easily from one sentence to the next.
Notice how this writer uses a variety of coherence devices, sometimes in combination, to achieve overall paragraph coherence. Fifty years ago, when I was a boy of fifteen and helping to inhabit a missourian village on the banks of the mississippi, i had a friend whose society was very dear to me because i was forbidden by my mother to partake. He was a gay and impudent and satirical and delightful young black man -a slave -who daily preached sermons from the top of his master's woodpile, with me for sole audience. He imitated the pulpit style of the several clergymen of the village, and did it well, and with fine passion and energy. To me he was a wonder. I believed he was the greatest orator in the United States and would some day be heard from.
Sometimes apparent were the fatal afflictions of the dead people: a middle-aged king died from a blow on the head, and polio killed a child king. Mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. Though weak, this paragraph is not a total washout. It starts with a topic sentence, and the sentences that follow are clearly related to the topic sentence. In the language of writing, the paragraph is unified (i.e., it contains no irrelevant details).
However, the paragraph is not coherent. The sentences are disconnected from each other, making it difficult for the reader to follow the writer's train of thought. Below is the same paragraph revised for coherence. Italics indicates pronouns and repeated/restated key words, bold indicates transitional tag-words, and underlining indicates parallel structures. The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. In short, mummification consisted of removing the internal organs, applying natural preservatives inside and out, and then wrapping the body in layers of bandages. And the process was remarkably effective.
Essay examples and Definition - literary devices
We urge you to read the guide's section on Parallelism and take the accompanying quiz on recognizing parallel form (and repairing sentences that ought to use parallel form but don't). Pay special attention to the guided tour through the parallel intricacies within Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. Coherence devices in Action In our section on writing the Argumentative essay, we have a complete student essay cry, wolf" at the bottom of that document) which we have analyzed in terms of argumentative development and in which we have paid special attention to the. Look at the following paragraph: The ancient Egyptians were masters of preserving dead people's bodies by making mummies of them. Mummies several thousand years old have been discovered nearly intact. The skin, hair, teeth, fingernails and toenails, and facial features of the mummies were evident. It is possible to diagnose the disease they suffered in life, such as smallpox, writings arthritis, and nutritional deficiencies. The process was remarkably effective.
In fact, you can't forget Lincoln's advice, because it has become part of the music of our language. Remember to use this device to link summary paragraphs as well as sentences. Pronoun Reference Pronouns quite naturally connect ideas because pronouns almost always refer the reader to something earlier in the text. I cannot say "This is true because." without causing the reader to consider what "this" could mean. Thus, the pronoun causes the reader to sum up, quickly and subconsciously, what was said before (what this is) before going on to the because part of my reasoning. We should hardly need to add, however, that it must always be perfectly clear what a pronoun refers. If my reader cannot instantly know what this is, then my sentence is ambiguous and misleading. Also, do not rely on unclear pronoun references to avoid responsibility: " They say that." Parallelism Music in prose is often the result of parallelism, the deliberate repetition of larger structures of phrases, even clauses and whole sentences.
your entire essay and discover none of these transitional devices, then you must wonder what, if anything, is holding your ideas together. Practice by inserting a tentative however, nevertheless, consequently. Reread the essay later to see if these words provide the glue you needed at those points. Repetition of key words and Phrases The ability to connect ideas by means of repetition of key words and phrases sometimes meets a natural resistance based on the fear of being repetitive. We've been trained to loathe redundancy. Now we must learn that catching a word or phrase that's important to a reader's comprehension of a piece and replaying that word or phrase creates a musical motif in that reader's head. Unless it is overworked and obtrusive, repetition lends itself to a sense of coherence (or at least to the illusion of coherence). Remember Lincoln's advice: you can fool some of the people all of the time, and all of the people some of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all of the time.
The use of the little conjunctions especially and and but comes naturally for most writers. However, the question whether one can begin a sentence with a small conjunction often arises. Isn't the conjunction at the beginning of the sentence a sign that the sentence should have been connected to the prior sentence? But often the initial conjunction calls attention to the sentence in an effective way, and that's just what you want. Over-used, beginning a sentence with a conjunction can be distracting, but the device can add a refreshing dash to a sentence and speed the narrative flow of your text. Restrictions against beginning a sentence with and or but are based on shaky grammatical foundations; some of the most influential writers in the language have been happily ignoring such restrictions for centuries. Here is a chart of the transitional devices (also called conjunctive adverbs or adverbial conjunctions ) accompanied with a simplified definition of function (note that some devices appear with more than one definition addition again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further. A word of caution: do not interlard your text with transitional expressions merely writing because you know these devices connect ideas.
Mark Twain: Corn-pone Opinions
The most convincing ideas in the world, expressed in the most beautiful sentences, will move no one unless those ideas are properly connected. Unless readers can move easily from one thought to another, they will surely find something else to read or turn on the television. Providing transitions between ideas is largely a matter of attitude. You must never assume that your readers know what you know. In fact, it's a good idea to assume not only that your readers need all the information that you have and need to know how you arrived at the point you're at, but also that they are not quite as quick as you are. You might be able to leap from one side of the stream to the other; believe that your readers need some stepping stones and be sure to place them in readily accessible and visible spots. There are four basic mechanical considerations in providing transitions between ideas: using transitional expressions, repeating key words and phrases, using pronoun reference, and using parallel form. Using transitional tags, transitional tags run the gamut from the most simple the little conjunctions: and, but, nor, for, yet, or, (and sometimes) so to more summary complex signals that ideas are somehow connected the conjunctive adverbs and transitional expressions such as however, moreover, nevertheless,. For additional information on conjunctions, click.