49 On 7 February 2006, five journalists were tried for insulting the judicial institutions of the State, and for aiming to prejudice a court case (per Article 288 of the turkish penal code). 51 The reporters were on trial for criticising the court-ordered closing of a conference in Istanbul regarding the Armenian genocide during the time of the Ottoman Empire. The conference continued elsewhere, transferring locations from a state to a private university. The trial continued until, when four of the reporters were acquitted. The case against the fifth journalist, murat Belge, proceeded until, when he was also acquitted. The purpose of the conference was to critically analyze the official Turkish view of the Armenian Genocide in 1915; a taboo subject in Turkey.
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Among the points of contention are whether the victims of massacres such as the račak massacre and plants Srebrenica massacre were unarmed civilians or armed resistance fighters, whether death and rape tolls were inflated, and whether prison camps such as Sremska mitrovica camp were sites. These scholars are labeled "revisionists" by their opponents. For example, diana johnstone 's controversial book, fools' Crusade: Yugoslavia, nato, and Western Delusions, questions whether genocidal killings occurred in Srebrenica. The book was rejected by publishers in Sweden 40 prompting an open letter in 2003 defending Johnstone's book (and her right to publish) which was signed by, among others, noam Chomsky, arundhati roy, tariq Ali and John Pilger : "We regard diana johnstone's fools' Crusade. 43 The historian Marko attila hoare called it "an extremely poor book, one that is little more than a polemic in defence of the serb-nationalist record during the wars of the 1990s and an ill-informed one at that". 40 The report about Case Srebrenica by darko trifunovic, 44 commissioned by the government of the republika srpska, 45 was described by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia as "one of the worst examples of revisionism in relation to the mass executions. 46 Outrage and condemnation by a wide variety of Balkan and international figures eventually forced the republika srpska to disown the report. 45 47 Turkey and the Armenian Genocide edit main article: Armenian Genocide denial Turkish laws such as Article 301, that state "a person who publicly insults Turkishness, or the republic or the turkish Grand National Assembly of Turkey, shall be punishable by imprisonment were used. 48 The controversy occurred as Turkey was first vying for membership in the european Union (EU) where the suppression of dissenters is looked down upon. 49 Article 301 originally was part of penal-law reforms meant to modernise turkey to eu standards, as part of negotiating Turkey's membership to the. 50 In 2006, the charges were dropped due to pressure from the european Union and United States on the turkish government.
It's wrong for the prime minister to visit such a place". 36 Other critics who? note that men, who would contemporarily be perceived as "Korean" and "Chinese are enshrined for the military actions they effected as Japanese Imperial subjects. Citation needed hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings edit The hibakusha explosion-affected people of Hiroshima write and Nagasaki seek compensation from their government and criticize it for failing to "accept responsibility for having instigated and then prolonged an aggressive war long after Japan's defeat was apparent, resulting. 37 Historians Hill and Koshiro have stated that attempts to minimize the importance of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki is revisionist history. 38 eb sledge expressed concern that such revisionism, in his words "mellowing would allow us to forget the harsh facts of the history that led to the bombings. 39 Serbian war crimes in the yugoslav wars edit main article: Serbia in the yugoslav wars There have been a number of scholars and political activists who have publicly disagreed with mainstream views of Serbian war crimes in the yugoslav wars of 19911999.
29 In the early 20th century, mildred Rutherford, the historian general of the United daughters of the confederacy (udc led the attack against American history textbooks that did not present the lost cause of the confederacy (ca. 1900) version of the history of the. To that pedagogical end, rutherford word assembled a "massive collection" of documents that included "essay contests on the glory of the ku klux Klan and personal tributes to faithful slaves". 30 About the historical negationism of the United daughters of the confederacy, the historian david Blight said: All udc members and leaders were not as virulently racist as Rutherford, but all, in the name of a reconciled nation, participated in an enterprise that deeply influenced. 31 War crimes edit japanese war crimes edit see also: Japanese imperialism and Japanese war crimes The post-war minimisation of the war crimes of Japanese imperialism is an example of "illegitimate" historical revisionism; 32 some contemporary japanese revisionists, such as yūko iwanami (granddaughter of General. 33 On, japanese prime minister Shinzō Abe denied that the military had forced women into sexual slavery during the war, saying, "The fact is, there is no evidence to prove there was coercion". Before he spoke, some liberal Democratic Party legislators also sought to revise Yōhei kōno 's apology to former comfort women in 1993; 34 likewise, there was the controversial negation of the six-week nanking Massacre in 19371938. 35 Shinzo abe led the japanese society for History textbook reform and headed the diet antenna of Nippon kaigi, two openly revisionist groups denying Japanese war crimes. Editor-in-chief of the conservative yomiuri Shimbun Tsuneo watanabe criticized the yasukuni Shrine as a bastion of revisionism: "The yasukuni Shrine runs a museum where they show items in order to encourage and worship militarism.
The book burnings in France were an idea that the French fascists, of the collaborating Vichy government (194044 borrowed from the nazis, to cleanse French culture of Jewish intellectualism and the foreign politics of pacifism, decadent literature, and degenerate art, as the nazis had cleansed. In the event, after the final Solution had concluded, for the post-war world, the nazis had planned to establish a museum of Judaism that would have featured selected books of Jewish culture, preserved in memoriam of the extinct Jews of Europe. 25 United States history edit confederate revisionism edit main articles: Lost cause of the confederacy and neo-confederate The historical negationism of American civil War revisionists and neo-confederates claims that the confederate States (186165) were the defenders rather than the instigators of the war, and that. Regarding neo-confederate revisionism of the. Civil War, the historian Brooks. Simpson said that: This is an active attempt to reshape historical memory, an effort by white southerners to find historical justifications for present-day actions. The neoconfederate movement's ideologues have grasped that if they control how people remember the past, they'll control how people approach the present and the future. Ultimately, this is a very conscious war for memory and heritage. It's a quest for legitimacy, the eternal quest for justification.
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23 Chinese book dog burning edit The burning of books and burying of scholars ( traditional Chinese : ; simplified Chinese : ; pinyin : fénshū kēngrú ; literally: "burning of books and burying (alive) of (Confucian) scholars or "Fires of Qin refers to the burning. "books" at this point refers to writings on bamboo strips, which were then bound together. This contributed to the loss to history of many philosophical theories of proper government (known as "the hundred Schools of Thought. The official philosophy of government legalism survived. Nazi book burning edit main article: nazi book burnings a nazi-sponsored book burning meant to negate the value of Germany's literary history berlin). In the mid1930s, the nazi book burnings were part of a campaign of anti-intellectualism conducted throughout Germany and Austria by the deutsche Studentenschaft (German Student Association) of the Third reich (193345). The burning of books was a public ceremony in which the works of authors whose politics were classical liberal, anarchist, socialist, pacifist, and Communist were fuel for bonfires.
Given the official antisemitism of the reich, the works of Jewish writers were specifically identified for burning; thus did nazi germany rid themselves of writers deemed subversive of the national Socialist ideology. In Poland, the sonderfahndungsbuch Polen special Prosecution book-poland was the book of political proscription for the killing of socially important Poles who invisible might lead resistance against the nazi occupation of Poland (193945). Compiled before the war began in 1939, the book contained lists that identified more than 61,000 members of the polish elites political and social activists, the intelligentsia, scholars, actors, former military officers as enemies of the state dangerous to the Third reich. 24 In Germany-occupied France, anti-fascist exiles made a "Library of Burned books" of every book that Adolf Hitler had ordered destroyed in France. It listed copies of titles that had been burned.
19 Deception edit see also: Disinformation Deception includes falsifying information, obscuring the truth, and lying in order to manipulate public opinion about the historical event discussed in the revised history. The negationist historian applies the techniques of deception to achieve either a political or an ideological goal, or both. The field of history distinguishes among history books based upon credible, verifiable sources, and were peer-reviewed before publication; and deceptive history books, based upon incredible sources, and which were not submitted for peer review. 20 The distinction among types of history-book rests upon the research techniques used in writing a history. Verifiability, accuracy, and openness to criticism are central tenets of historical scholarship. When these techniques are sidestepped, the presented historical information might be deliberately deceptive, a "revised history".
Denial edit see also: Denialism and Conspiracy theory denial is defensively protecting information from being shared with other historians, and claiming that facts are untrue especially denial of the war crimes and crimes against humanity perpetrated in the course of the world War ii (193945). The negationist historian protects the historical-revisionism project by shifting the blame, censorship, distraction, and media manipulation ; occasionally, denial by protection includes risk management for the physical security of revisionist sources. Further information: Holocaust denial and Criticism of Holocaust denial Relativization and trivialization edit main article: Holocaust trivialization Comparing certain historical atrocities to other crimes is the practice of relativization, interpretation by moral judgements, in order to alter public perception of the first historical atrocity. Although such comparisons can often occur in negationist history, their pronouncement is not usually part of revisionist intentions upon the historical facts, but an opinion of moral judgement. Examples edit book burning edit repositories of literature have been targeted throughout history (e.g., the library of Alexandria burning of the liturgical and historical books of the. Thomas Christians by the archbishop of goa aleixo de menezes, 22 including recently, such as the burning of Jaffna library and the destruction of Iraqi libraries by isis during the fall of Mosul.
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Evans describes the technical differences, between professional historians and negationist historians: Reputable and professional historians do not suppress parts of"tions from documents that go against their own case, but take them into account, and, if necessary, amend their own case, accordingly. They do not present, as genuine, documents which they know to business be forged, just because these forgeries happen to back up what they are saying. They do not invent ingenious, but implausible, and utterly unsupported reasons for business distrusting genuine documents, because these documents run counter to their arguments; again, they amend their arguments, if this is the case, or, indeed, abandon them altogether. They do not consciously attribute their own conclusions to books and other sources, which, in fact, on closer inspection, actually say the opposite. They do not eagerly seek out the highest possible figures in a series of statistics, independently of their reliability, or otherwise, simply because they want, for whatever reason, to maximize the figure in question, but rather, they assess all the available figures, as impartially. They do not knowingly mistranslate sources in foreign languages in order to make them more serviceable to themselves. They do not willfully invent words, phrases,"tions, incidents and events, for which there is no historical evidence, in order to make their arguments more plausible.
In the ussr (191791 the ideology of the communist Party of the soviet Union and soviet historiography treated reality and the party line as the same intellectual entity ; 14 soviet historical negationism advanced a specific, political and ideological agenda friend about Russia and its place. 15 Techniques of negationism edit historical negationism applies the techniques of research,"tion, and presentation for deception of the reader and denial of the historical record. In support of the "revised history" perspective, the negationist historian uses false documents as genuine sources, presents specious reasons to distrust genuine documents, exploits published opinions, by"ng out of historical context, manipulates statistics, and mistranslates texts in other languages. 16 The revision techniques of historical negationism operate in the intellectual space of public debate for the advancement of a given interpretation of history and the cultural-perspective of the "revised history". 17 As a document, the revised history is used to negate the validity of the factual, documentary record, and so reframe explanations and perceptions of the discussed historical event, in order to deceive the reader, the listener, and the viewer; therefore, historical negationism functions. 18 Rather than submit their works for peer review, negationist historians rewrite history and use logical fallacies to construct arguments that will obtain the desired results, a "revised history" that supports an agenda political, ideological, religious, etc. 4 In the practice of historiography, the British historian Richard.
principal functions of negationist history are the abilities to control ideological influence and to control political influence. In "History men Battle over Britain's Future michael dAncona said that historical negationists "seem to have been given a collective task in a nation's cultural development, the full significance of which is emerging only now: to redefine national status in a changing world". 11 History is a social resource that contributes to shaping national identity, culture, and the public memory. Through the study of history, people are imbued with a particular cultural identity; therefore, by negatively revising history, the negationist can craft a specific, ideological identity. Because historians are credited as people who single-mindedly pursue truth, by way of fact, negationist historians capitalize on the historian's professional credibility, and present their pseudohistory as true scholarship. 12 by adding a measure of credibility to the work of revised history, the ideas of the negationist historian are more readily accepted in the public mind. 12 As such, professional historians recognize the revisionist practice of historical negationism as the work of "truth-seekers" finding different truths in the historical record to fit their political, social, and ideological contexts. 13 Political influence edit history provides insight into past political policies and consequences, and thus assists people in extrapolating political implications for contemporary society. Historical negationism is applied to cultivate a specific political myth sometimes with official consent from the government whereby self-taught, amateur, and dissident academic historians either manipulate or misrepresent historical accounts to achieve political ends.
Katyn massacre, and the forced deporations of Poles, romanians/Moldovans, lithuanians, ukrainians, tatars, and etc. in literature, the consequences of historical negationism have been imaginatively depicted in some works of fiction, such as, nineteen Eighty-four, by, george Orwell. In modern times, negationism may spread via new media, such as the. Contents, origin of the term edit, the term "negationism" ( négationnisme ) was first coined by the French historian. Henry rousso in his 1987 book the vichy syndrome which looked at the French popular memory of Vichy revelation France and the French Resistance. Rousso argued that it was necessary to distinguish between legitimate historical revisionism in Holocaust studies and politically-motivated denial of the holocaust, which he termed negationism. 7 Purposes edit Usually, the purpose of historical negation is to achieve a national, political aim, by transferring war-guilt, demonizing an enemy, providing an illusion of victory, or preserving a friendship. 8 Sometimes the purpose of a revised history is to sell more books or to attract attention with a newspaper headline. 9 The historian James.
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For the critical re-examination of historical facts, see. For negationism or revisionism related to mental abuse, see. Historical negationism 1 2 or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record. It is often imprecisely or intentionally incorrectly referred to as historical revisionism, but that term also denotes a legitimate academic pursuit of re-interpretation of the historical record and questioning the accepted views. 3, in attempting to revise the past, illegitimate historical revisionism may use techniques inadmissible in proper historical discourse, such as presenting known forged documents as genuine; inventing ingenious but implausible reasons for distrusting genuine documents; attributing conclusions to books and sources that report the opposite;. 4, some countries, such as Germany, have criminalised the negationist revision of certain historical events, while others take a more cautious position for various reasons, such as protection of free speech ; still others mandate negationist views. Notable examples of negationism include, holocaust denial, armenian Genocide denial, japanese war crime denial 5 6 and the denial of soviet crimes (such as the invasion of Poland, london the.