Reversal of the directional pattern (right to left and return down right). Correct directional pattern. Correct directional pattern and spaces between words. Extensive text without any difficulties of arrangement and spacing of text A simple curriculum-based measure of fluency is total number of words written during a short writing assignment. When fluency is the focus, misspellings, poor word choice, and faulty punctuation are not considered. Attention is only directed to the student's facility in translating thoughts into words.
Prevention and Intervention of Writing Difficulties for
Punctuated story (of two or more sentences). Paragraphed story (two themes) Message quality record the number for the best description on the child's sample:. He has essay a concept of signs (uses letters, invents letters, used punctuation. He has a concept that a message is conveyed. A message is copied. Repetitive use of sentence patterns such as "Here is a". Attempts to record own ideas. Successful composition Directional Principles Record the number of the highest rating for which there is no error in the sample of the child's writing:. No evidence of directional knowledge. Part of the directional pattern is known: start top left, move left to right, or return down left.
As concepts of print and fine motor skills develop, the student should become more proficient at writing down words and sentences into compositions of gradually increasing length. The developmental route of very young writers involves trying to understand what written language is about as they look at books, become aware of environmental print, and put pencil to paper (Clay, 1982). Then children try to relate their experiences in writing using invented spelling. As they begin to construct little stories they explore spelling patterns and develop new language patterns. Clay (1979, 1993) recommends a simple rating scale for emerging writing skills that focuses on language level (from only letters to sentences and paragraphs message quality, and directional principles (Figure 2). Rating a child's early attempts at writing (Clay, 1993) Language level Record the highest level of linguistic organization used by the child:. Word (any recognizable word). Word group (any two-word phrase). Sentence (any simple sentence).
A writing product fulfills its communicative intent if it is of appropriate length, is logical and coherent, and has a writing readable format. It is a pleasure to read if it is composed of well-constructed sentences and a rich variety of words that clearly convey the author's meaning. When various conceptual models of writing are compared side by side (Isaacson, 1984) five product variables seem to emerge: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary. Too often teachers focus their attention primarily on surface features of a student's composition related to the mechanical lined aspects of writing, or conventions. A balanced assessment should look at all five aspects of a student's writing. The following are simple methods for assessing each product variable. In some instances quantifiable measures are used; in others, qualitative assessments seem more appropriate. Fluency The first writing skill a teacher might assess with a beginning writer is fluency: being able to translate one's thoughts into written words.
No, i wrote down all my ideas on a "think sheet". No, i put similar ideas together, yes. No, i chose the best ideas for my composition. No, i numbered my ideas in logical order. No, i wrote down my ideas in sentences. No, when I needed help I _did the best I could _looked in a book _asked my partner _asked the teacher, i read my first draft to myself. No, i marked the parts I like, yes. No, i marked the parts I might want to change. No, i read my first draft to my partner Yes no i listened to my partner's suggestions Yes no i made changes to my composition Yes no i edited for correctness Yes no i wrote the final draft in my best writing Yes no simple.
Simple ways to Assess the Writing skills of Students with
Each step has its own substeps and strategies that become more sophisticated as the students become more mature as writers, accommodating their style to specific text structures and purposes of writing. Assessment of the writing process can be done through observation of students as they go through the steps of writing. Having students assess their own writing process is also important for two reasons. First, self-assessment allows students an opportunity to observe and reflect on their own approach, drawing attention to important steps that may be overlooked. Second, self-assessment following a conceptual model like power is a means of internalizing an explicit strategy, allowing opportunities for the student to mentally rehearse the strategy steps.
Figure 1 is a format for both self-observation and teacher observation of the writing process following the power strategy. Similar self-assessments or observation checklists could be constructed for other conceptual models of the writing process. Using a five-step conceptual model for student and teacher observation of the writing process. Power looking at How i write. My comments, teacher Comments, i chose a good topic, yes. No, i read about my topic, yes. No, i thought for about what the readers will want to know.
How much planning does the student do before he or she writes? Does she have a strategy for organizing ideas? What seem to be the obstacles to getting thoughts down on paper? How does the student attempt to spell words she does not know? Does the student reread what she has written?
Does the student talk about or share her work with others as she is writing it? What kind of changes does the student make to her first draft? In order to make instructionally relevant observations, the observer must work from a conceptual model of what the writing process should. Educators have reached little consensus regarding the number of steps in the writing process. Writing experts have proposed as few as two (Elbow, 1981) and as many as nine (Frank, 1979). Englert, raphael, Anderson, Anthony, and Stevens (1991) provided a model of a five-step writing process using the acronym power: Plan, Organize, write, edit, and revise.
M: Academic Writing for Graduate Students
Simple curriculum-based methods for assessing written expression can meet all these purposes. Process, product, and purpose, curriculum-based assessment must start with an inspection of the curriculum. Many writing curricula are with based on a conceptual model that takes into account process, product, and purpose. This conceptual model, therefore, forms the framework for the simple assessment techniques that follow. Simple ways to assess the process. The diagnostic uses of assessment (determining the reasons for writing problems and the student's instructional needs) are best met by looking at the process of writing,. E., the steps students go through and strategies they list use as they work at writing.
The teacher does this by carefully monitoring students' writing to assess strengths and weaknesses, teaching specific skills and strategies in response to student needs, and giving careful minimal feedback that will reinforce newly learned skills and correct recurring problems. These responsibilities reveal, upon inspection, that assessment is clearly an integral part of good instruction. In their review of the existing research on effective instruction Christenson, Ysseldyke, and Thurlow (1989) found that, in addition to other factors, the following conditions were positively correlated to pupil achievement: Assessment, therefore, is an essential component of effective instruction. Airasian (1996) identified three types of classroom assessments. The first he called "sizing-up" assessments, usually done during the first week of school to provide the teacher with quick information about the students when beginning their instruction. The second type, instructional assessments, are used for the daily tasks of planning instruction, giving feedback, and monitoring student progress. The third type he referred to as official assessments, which are the periodic formal functions of assessment for grouping, grading, and reporting. In other words, teachers use assessment for identifying strengths and weaknesses, planning instruction to fit diagnosed needs, evaluating instructional activities, giving feedback, monitoring performance, and reporting progress.
Proposal Writing Resources. Would you prefer reading this page of links in French? Check out Mary Orban's blog at: merci mary! Background information on how this guide was prepared. Companion guide, writing and Presenting your Thesis or Dissertation. A teacher's first responsibility is to provide opportunities for writing and encouragement for students who attempt to write. A teacher's second responsibility is to promote students' success in writing.
Long orations are minimized and suggestions are presented in a direct and clear manner. Actual proposal examples are included so that you can easily see the different suggestions demonstrated. As you are going through this, guide you will probably see things that aren't clear, need fixing, or should be further clarified. Please send them along and I will do my best to improve the. Guide based upon your ideas. I try to make major revisions in the guide at least 2-3 times each year. Your suggestions on how to improve this, guide will be most appreciated, and finally, i receive many requests asking me to recommend a book or two that would be helpful in writing a good proposal. I've started to create such a listing of books listing i've identified and my review of each of them. Feel free to check out my selection of books to help with the preparation of a funding proposal.
Writing Literature reviews: a guide for Students of the
Guide for Writing a funding Proposal. Guide, for writing a, funding proposal,. East Lansing, michigan usa this, guide for Writing a funding Proposal was created to help empower people to be pdf successful in gaining funds for projects that provide worthwhile social service. A major theme that runs throughout the. Guide is a concern for the development of meaningful cooperative relationships - with funding agencies, with community organizations, and with the people you are serving - as a basis for the development of strong fundable initiatives. Guide is built on the assumption that it is through collaboration and participation at all levels that long term change can be effected. To make this, guide as useful as possible, all suggestions have been carefully reviewed with a concern that they be easy to implement and can have the greatest positive effect on the creation of a funding proposal. (This is the same design concern that i used for the creation of the companion guide for graduate students. Guide for Writing and Presenting your Thesis or Dissertation ).