76 77 Americans for Prosperity and FreedomWorks were "probably the leading partners" in the september 2009 Taxpayer March on Washington, also known as the "9/12 tea party according to The guardian. 78 Commentaries on origin Fox News Channel commentator juan Williams has said that the tea party movement emerged from the "ashes" of Ron paul 's 2008 presidential primary campaign. 79 Indeed, ron paul has stated that its origin was on December 16, 2007, when supporters held a 24-hour record breaking, " moneybomb " fundraising event on the boston tea party 's 234th anniversary, 80 but that others, including Republicans, took over and changed some. 81 82 Writing for m, dave weigel has argued in concurrence that, in his view, the "first modern tea party events occurred in December 2007, long before barack Obama took office, and they were organized by supporters of Rep. Ron paul with the movement expanding and gaining prominence in 2009. 60 Barack Obama, the first African American President of the United States, took office in January 2009. Journalist Joshua green has stated in The Atlantic that while ron paul is not the tea party's founder, or its culturally resonant figure, he has become the "intellectual godfather" of the movement since many now agree with his long-held beliefs. 83 journalist Jane mayer has said that the koch brothers were essential in funding and strengthening the movement, through groups such as Americans for Prosperity.
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Contrary to currier's depiction, few of the men dumping the tea were actually disguised as Native americans. 68 References to the boston tea party were part of Tax day protests held in the 1990s and before. In 1984, david. Koch and Charles. Koch of Koch Industries founded Citizens for taught a sound Economy (cse a conservative political group whose self-described mission was "to fight for less government, lower taxes, and less regulation." Congressman Ron paul was appointed as the first chairman of the organization. The cse lobbied for policies favorable to corporations, particularly tobacco companies. Citation needed In 2002, a tea party website was designed and published by the cse at web address m, and stated "our us tea party is a national event, hosted continuously online and open to all Americans who feel our taxes are too high and. 74 In 2003, dick Armey became the chairman of cse after retiring from Congress. 75 In 2004, citizens for a sound Economy split into FreedomWorks, for 501c4 advocacy activity, and the Americans for Prosperity foundation. Dick Armey stayed as chairman of FreedomWorks, while david Koch stayed as Chairman of the Americans for Prosperity foundation. The two organizations would become key paperless players in the tea party movement from 2009 onward.
63 An article in Politico reported that many tea party activists were skeptical of the caucus, seeing it as an effort by margaret the republican Party to hijack the movement. Utah congressman Jason Chaffetz refused to join the caucus, saying Structure and formality are the exact opposite of what the tea party is, and if there is an attempt to put structure and formality around it, or to co-opt it by washington,. C., its going to take away from the free-flowing nature of the true tea party movement. 64 Etymology The name "tea party" is a reference to the boston tea party, a protest in 1773 by colonists who objected to British taxation without representation, and demonstrated by dumping British tea taken from docked ships into the harbor. The event was one of the first in a series that led to the United States Declaration of Independence and the American revolution that gave birth to American independence. 65 Some commentators have referred to the tea in "tea party" as the backronym "Taxed Enough Already though this did not appear until months after the first nationwide protests. 66 67 History see also: Tax revolt Background This iconic 1846 lithograph by nathaniel Currier was entitled "The destruction of tea at Boston Harbor the phrase "Boston tea party" had not yet become standard.
44 tea partiers in both houses of Congress have shown willingness to cut foreign aid. Most leading figures within the fuller tea party both within and outside congress opposed military intervention in Syria. Organization The tea party movement is composed of a loose affiliation of national and local groups that determine their own platforms and agendas without central leadership. The tea party movement has both been cited as an example of grassroots political activity and has also been described as an example of corporate-funded activity made to appear as spontaneous community action, a practice known as " astroturfing." Other observers see the organization. 36 55 The tea party movement is not a national political party; polls show that most tea partiers consider themselves to be republicans 56 57 and the movement's supporters have tended to endorse republican candidates. 58 Commentators, including Gallup editor-in-chief Frank newport, have suggested that the movement is not a new political group but simply a re-branding of traditional Republican candidates and policies. An October 2010 Washington Post canvass of local tea party organizers found 87 saying "dissatisfaction with mainstream Republican Party leaders" was "an important factor in the support the group has received so far". 61 tea party activists have expressed support for Republican politicians Sarah Palin, dick Armey, michele bachmann, marco rubio, and Ted Cruz. Citation needed In July 2010, bachmann formed the tea party congressional caucus ; 62 however, the caucus has been defunct since july 2012.
Mead says that Jacksonian populists, such as the tea party, combine a belief in American exceptionalism and its role in the world with skepticism of American's "ability to create a liberal world order". When necessary, they favor ' total war ' and unconditional surrender over "limited wars for limited goals". Mead identifies two main trends, one personified by former Texas Congressman Ron paul and the other by former governor of Alaska sarah Palin. "Paulites" have a jeffersonian approach that seeks to avoid foreign military involvement. "Palinites while seeking to avoid being drawn into unnecessary conflicts, favor a more aggressive response to maintaining America's primacy in international relations. Mead says that both groups share a distaste for "liberal internationalism". 42 Some tea party-affiliated Republicans, such as Michele bachmann, jeff Duncan, connie mack iv, jeff Flake, tim Scott, joe walsh, allen West, and Jason Chaffetz, voted for progressive congressman Dennis Kucinich 's resolution to withdraw. Military personnel from Libya. 43 In the senate, three tea party backed Republicans, jim demint, mike lee and Michael Crapo, voted to limit foreign aid to libya, pakistan and Egypt.
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It was a legislative agenda created by conservative activist ryan Hecker with the assistance of Dick Armey of FreedomWorks. Armey had co-written with Newt Gingrich the previous Contract with America released by the republican Party during the 1994 midterm elections. One thousand agenda ideas that had been submitted were narrowed down to twenty-one non-social issues. Participants then voted in an online campaign in which they were asked to select their favorite policy planks. The results were released as a ten-point tea party platform.
39 40 The contract from presentation America was met with some support within the republican Party, but it was not broadly embraced by gop leadership, which released its own ' pledge to America '. 40 In the aftermath of the 2012 American elections, some tea party activists have taken up more traditionally herbal populist ideological viewpoints on issues that are distinct from general conservative views. Examples are various tea party demonstrators sometimes coming out in favor. Immigration reform as well as for raising the. 41 Foreign policy see also: Foreign policy of the United States Historian and writer Walter Russell mead analyzes the foreign policy views of the tea party movement in a 2011 essay published in Foreign Affairs.
28 30 They have protested the irs for controversial treatment of groups with "tea party" in their names. 31 They have formed Super pacs to support candidates sympathetic to their goals and have opposed what they call the "Republican establishment" candidates. Even though the groups have a wide range of different goals, the tea party places its view of the constitution at the center of its reform agenda. It urges the return of government as intended by some of the founding Fathers. It also seeks to teach its view of the constitution and other founding documents.
19 Scholars have described its interpretation variously as originalist, popular, 34 or a unique combination of the two. 35 32 Reliance on the constitution is selective and inconsistent. Adherents cite it, yet do so more as a cultural reference rather than out of commitment to the text, which they seek to alter. Several constitutional amendments have been targeted by some in the movement for full or partial repeal, including the 14th, 16th, and 17th. There has also been support for a proposed Repeal Amendment, which would enable a two-thirds majority of the states to repeal federal laws, and a balanced Budget Amendment, to limit deficit spending. 24 One attempt at forming a list of what tea partiers wanted Congress to do resulted in the contract from America.
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20 22 The tea party generally focuses on a significant reduction in the size and scope of the government. Tea party members generally advocate a national economy operating without government oversight. 23 Among its goals are limiting the size of the federal government, reducing government spending, lowering the national debt and opposing tax increases. 24 to this end, tea party groups have protested the Troubled Asset Relief Program (tarp stimulus programs such as diary the American Recovery and reinvestment Act of 2009 (arra, commonly referred to as the Stimulus or The recovery Act cap and trade environmental regulations, health care. 25 tea party groups have also voiced support for right to work legislation as well as tighter border security, and opposed amnesty for illegal immigrants. 26 27 On the federal health care reform law, they began to work at the state level to nullify the law, after the republican Party lost seats in congress and the Presidency in the 2012 elections. 28 29 It has also mobilized locally against the United Nations Agenda.
set its own priorities and goals. Goals may conflict, and priorities will often differ between groups. Many tea party organizers see this as a strength rather than a weakness, as decentralization has helped to immunize the tea party against co-opting by outside entities and corruption from within. 19 The tea party has generally sought to avoid placing too much emphasis on traditional conservative social issues. National tea party organizations, such as the tea party patriots and FreedomWorks, have expressed concern that engaging in social issues would be divisive. 19 Instead, they have sought to have activists focus their efforts away from social issues and focus on economic and limited government issues. 20 Still, many groups like glenn Beck 's 9/12 tea parties, teaparty. Org, the iowa tea party and Delaware patriot Organizations do act on social issues such as abortion, gun control, prayer in schools, and illegal immigration.
The movement began following Barack Obama's first presidential inauguration (in January 2009) when write his administration announced plans to give financial aid to bankrupt homeowners. A major force behind it was Americans for Prosperity (afp a conservative political advocacy group founded by businessmen and political activist david. It is unclear exactly how much money is donated to afp by david and his brother Charles Koch. 12 Following a february 19, 2009 call by cnbc reporter Rick santelli on the floor of the Chicago mercantile Exchange for a "tea party 13 14 over fifty conservative activists agreed by conference call to coalesce against Obama's agenda and scheduled series of protests, including. 15 16 Supporters of the movement subsequently have had a major impact on the internal politics of the republican Party. Although the tea party is not a party in the classic sense of the word, some research suggests that members of the tea party caucus vote like a significantly farther right third party in Congress. 17 The movement's name refers to the boston tea party of December 16, 1773, a watershed event in the launch of the American revolution. The 1773 event demonstrated against taxation by the British government without political representation for the American colonists, and references to the boston tea party and even costumes from the 1770s era are commonly heard and seen in the tea party movement.
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This article is about the political movement. For the protest events themselves, see. The, tea party movement is an, american conservative movement within the, republican Party. Members of the movement have called for a father's reduction of the national debt of the United States and federal budget deficit by reducing government spending, and for lower taxes. The movement opposes government-sponsored universal healthcare 3 and has been described as a popular constitutional movement 4 composed of a mixture of libertarian, 5 populist, 6 and conservative activism. 7, it has sponsored multiple protests and supported various political candidates since 2009. 8 9 10, according to the, american Enterprise Institute, various polls in 2013 estimate that slightly over 10 percent of Americans identify as part of the movement.