The frequency of subfreezing winter nights in the sahara is strongly influenced by the north Atlantic Oscillation (nao with warmer winter temperatures during negative nao events and cooler winters with more frosts when the nao is positive. 18 This is because the weaker clockwise flow around the eastern side of the subtropical anticyclone during negative nao winters, although too dry to produce more than negligible precipitation, does reduce the flow of dry, cold air from higher latitudes of Eurasia into the sahara. 19 Precipitation The average annual rainfall ranges from very low in the northern and southern fringes of the desert to nearly non-existent over the central and the eastern part. The thin northern fringe of the desert receives more winter cloudiness and rainfall due to the arrival of low pressure systems over the mediterranean sea along the polar front, although very attenuated by the rain shadow effects of the mountains and the annual average rainfall. For example, biskra, algeria and ouarzazate, morocco are found in this zone. The southern fringe of the desert along the border with the sahel receives summer cloudiness and rainfall due to the arrival of the Intertropical Convergence zone from the south and the annual average rainfall ranges from 100 millimetres (4 in) to 250 millimetres (10 in). For example, timbuktu, mali and Agadez, niger are found in this zone. The vast central hyper-arid core of the desert is virtually never affected by northerly or southerly atmospheric disturbances and permanently remains under the influence of the strongest anticyclonic weather regime, and the annual average rainfall can drop to less than 1 millimetre (0.04 in).
Essay on desert animal camel
The annual average daily temperature exceeds 20 C or 68 f everywhere and resume can approach 30 C or 86 F in the hottest regions year-round. However, most of the desert has a value in excess of 25 C or. Sand and ground temperatures are even more extreme. During daytime, the sand temperature is extremely high as it can easily reach 80 C or 176 F or more. 17 A sand temperature.5 C (182.3 F) has been recorded in Port Sudan. 17 Ground temperatures of 72 C or 161.6 F have been recorded in the Adrar of mauritania and a value of 75 C (167 F) has been measured in Borkou, northern Chad. 17 due to lack of cloud cover and very low humidity, the desert usually features high diurnal temperature variations between days and nights. However, it is a myth that the nights are cold after extremely hot days in the sahara. The average diurnal temperature range is typically between 13 and 20 C.4 and.0. The lowest values are found along the coastal regions due to high humidity and are often even lower than 10 C or 18 F, while the highest values are found in inland desert areas where the humidity is the lowest, mainly in the southern Sahara. Still, it is true that winter nights can be cold as it can drop to the freezing point and even below, especially in high-elevation areas.
The average high temperature exceeds 38 to 40 C or 100.4 to 104.0 F during the hottest month nearly everywhere in the desert except at very high altitudes. The highest officially recorded average high temperature clarification needed was 47 C or 116.6 F in a remote desert town in the Algerian Desert called bou bernous with an elevation of 378 metres (1,240 ft) above sea level. 15 It is the worlds highest recorded average high temperature clarification needed and only death Valley, california rivals. 16 Other hot spots in Algeria such as Adrar, timimoun, in Salah, ouallene, aoulef, reggane with an elevation between 200 and 400 metres (660 and 1,310 ft) above sea level get slightly lower summer average highs around 46 C or 114.8 F during the hottest months of the. Salah, well known in Algeria for its extreme heat, has average high temperatures.8 C or 110.8 F,.4 C or 115.5 F,.5 C or 113.9 F and.9 C or 107.4 F in June, july, august and September respectively. There are even hotter spots in the sahara, but they night are located in extremely remote areas, especially in the azalai, lying in northern Mali. The major part of the desert experiences around three to five months when the average high strictly exceeds 40 C or 104. The southern central part of the desert experiences up to six or seven months when the average high temperature strictly exceeds 40 C or 104 F which shows the constancy and the length of the really hot season in the sahara. Some examples of this are: Bilma, niger and faya-largeau, chad.
Rainfall in this giant desert has to overcome the physical and atmospheric barriers that normally prevent the production of precipitation. The harsh climate of the sahara is characterized by: extremely low, unreliable, highly erratic rainfall; extremely high sunshine duration values; high temperatures year-round; negligible rates of relative humidity ; a significant diurnal temperature variation ; and extremely high levels of potential evaporation which are the. 14 Temperature The sky is usually clear above the desert and the sunshine duration is extremely high everywhere in the sahara. Most of the desert has more than 3,600 h of bright sunshine annually or over 82 of the time, and a wide area in the eastern part experiences in excess of 4,000 h of bright sunshine a year or over 91 of the time. The highest values are very close to the theoretical maximum value. A value of 4,300 h or 98 of the time would be recorded in Upper Egypt ( Aswan, luxor ) and in the nubian Desert ( Wadi halfa ). 15 The annual average direct solar irradiation is around 2,800 kWh m2 year) in the Great Desert. The sahara has a huge potential for solar energy production. Sahara desert The constantly high position of the sun, the extremely low relative humidity, and the lack of vegetation and rainfall make the Great Desert the hottest continuously large area worldwide, and the hottest place on Earth during summer in some spots.
Sahara desert research paper
The prevailing air mass lying above the sahara is the continental tropical (cT) air mass, which is hot and dry. Hot, dry air masses primarily form over the north-African desert from the heating of the vast continental land area, and it affects the whole desert during most of the year. Because of this extreme heating process, a thermal low is usually noticed near the surface, and is the strongest and the most developed during the summertime. The sahara high represents the eastern continental extension of the azores High, citation needed centered over the north Atlantic Ocean. The subsidence of the sahara high nearly reaches the ground during the coolest part of the year while it is confined to the upper troposphere during the hottest periods.
The effects of local surface low pressure are extremely limited because upper-level subsidence still continues to block any form of air ascent. Also, to be protected against rain-bearing weather systems by the atmospheric circulation itself, the desert is made even drier by his geographical configuration and location. Indeed, the extreme aridity of the sahara can not be only explained by the subtropical high pressure. The Atlas mountains, found in Algeria, morocco and Tunisia also help to enhance the aridity of the northern part of the desert. These major mountain ranges act as a barrier causing a strong rain shadow effect on the leeward side by dropping much supermarket of the humidity brought by atmospheric disturbances along the polar front which affects the surrounding Mediterranean climates. The primary alabaster source of rain in the sahara is the Intertropical Convergence zone, a continuous belt of low-pressure systems near the equator which bring the brief, short and irregular rainy season to the sahel and southern Sahara.
Climate The sahara is the world's largest low-latitude hot desert. The area is located in the horse latitudes under the subtropical ridge, a significant belt of semi-permanent subtropical warm-core high pressure where the air from upper levels of the troposphere tends to sink towards the ground. This steady descending airflow causes a warming and a drying effect in the upper troposphere. The sinking air prevents evaporating water from rising and, therefore, prevents the adiabatic cooling, which makes cloud formation extremely difficult to nearly impossible. 13 The permanent dissolution of clouds allows unhindered light and thermal radiation.
The stability of the atmosphere above the desert prevents any convective overturning, thus making rainfall virtually non-existent. As a consequence, the weather tends to be sunny, dry and stable with a minimal risk of rainfall. Subsiding, diverging, dry air masses associated with subtropical high-pressure systems are extremely unfavorable for the development of convectional showers. The subtropical ridge is the predominant factor that explains the hot desert climate ( Köppen climate classification BWh ) of this vast region. The lowering of air is the strongest and the most effective over the eastern part of the Great Desert, in the libyan Desert which is the sunniest, driest and the most nearly "rain-less" place on the planet rivaling the Atacama desert, lying in Chile and. The rainfall inhibition and the dissipation of cloud cover are most accentuated over the eastern section of the sahara rather than the western.
Retrieving a stromatolite from the
To the essay north, the sahara skirts the mediterranean sea in Egypt and portions of Libya, but in Cyrenaica and the maghreb, the sahara borders the mediterranean forest, woodland, and scrub eco-regions of northern Africa, all of which have a mediterranean climate characterized by hot summers. According to the botanical criteria of Frank White 9 and geographer Robert Capot-rey, 10 11 the northern limit of the sahara corresponds to the northern limit of date palm cultivation and the southern limit of the range of esparto, a grass typical of the mediterranean. The northern limit also corresponds to the 100 mm (3.9 in) isohyet of annual precipitation. 12 to the south, the sahara is bounded by the sahel, a belt of dry tropical savanna with a summer rainy season that extends across Africa from east to west. The southern limit of the sahara is indicated botanically by the southern limit of Cornulaca monacantha (a drought-tolerant member of the Chenopodiaceae or northern limit of Cenchrus biflorus, a grass typical of the sahel. 10 11 According to climatic criteria, the southern limit of the sahara corresponds to the 150 mm (5.9 in) isohyet of annual precipitation (this is a long-term average, since precipitation varies annually). 12 Important cities located in the sahara include nouakchott, the capital of mauritania; Tamanrasset, ouargla, béchar, hassi messaoud, ghardaïa, and El oued in Algeria; Timbuktu in Mali; Agadez in Niger; Ghat in Libya; and faya-largeau in Chad.
8 Unusual landforms include the richat Structure in say mauritania. Several deeply dissected mountains, many volcanic, rise from the desert, including the aïr mountains, ahaggar mountains, saharan Atlas, tibesti mountains, adrar des Iforas, and the red sea hills. The highest peak in the sahara is Emi koussi, a shield volcano in the tibesti range of northern Chad. The central Sahara is hyperarid, with sparse vegetation. The northern and southern reaches of the desert, along with the highlands, have areas of sparse grassland and desert shrub, with trees and taller shrubs in wadis, where moisture collects. In the central, hyperarid region, there are many subdivisions of the great desert: Tanezrouft, the ténéré, the libyan Desert, the eastern Desert, the nubian Desert and others. These extremely arid areas often receive no rain for years.
libya, mali, mauritania, niger, western Sahara, sudan and Tunisia. It covers 9 million square kilometres (3,500,000 sq mi amounting to 31 of Africa. If all areas with a mean annual precipitation of less than 250 mm were included, the sahara would be 11 million square kilometres (4,200,000 sq mi). It is one of three distinct physiographic provinces of the African massive physiographic division. The sahara is mainly rocky hamada (stone plateaus Ergs (sand seas - large areas covered with sand dunes ) form only a minor part, but many of the sand dunes are over 180 metres (590 ft) high. 7 Wind or rare rainfall shape the desert features: sand dunes, dune fields, sand seas, stone plateaus, gravel plains ( reg dry valleys ( wadi dry lakes ( oued and salt flats ( shatt or chott ).
The name 'sahara' is derived from dialectal Arabic word for "desert ṣara ( /saħra/ ). 3 4 5 6, the desert comprises much of, north Africa, excluding the fertile region on the mediterranean sea coast, the Atlas mountains of the maghreb, and the nile valley in Egypt and Sudan. It stretches from the red sea in the east and the mediterranean in the north to the Atlantic roles Ocean in the west, where the landscape gradually changes from desert to coastal plains. To the south, it is bounded by the sahel, a belt of semi-arid tropical savanna around the niger river valley and the sudan Region of Sub-Saharan Africa. The sahara can be divided into several regions including: the western Sahara, the central Ahaggar mountains, the tibesti mountains, the aïr mountains, the ténéré desert, and the libyan Desert. For several hundred thousand years, the sahara has alternated between desert and savanna grassland in a 41,000 year cycle caused by changes precession in the earth's axis as it rotates around the sun, which change the location of the north African Monsoon. It is next expected to become green in about 15,000 years (17,000 AD).
Essay on journey across the desert
For other uses, see, sahara (disambiguation). This video over the sahara and the middle east was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 on board the. The top image shows the safsaf Oasis on the surface of the sahara. The bottom (using radar ) is the rock layer underneath, revealing black channels cut by the meandering of an ancient river that gender once fed the oasis. The, sahara uk : /səhɑrə/, /səhærə/ ; Arabic :, aṣ-ṣarā al-kubrá, 'the Great Desert is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after, antarctica and the. 1, its area of 9,200,000 square kilometres (3,600,000 sq mi) 2 is comparable to the area. China or the, united States.