While there, he often dined "on the cuff as he said, at a nearby restaurant run by a frenchman, jules Simoneau, that stood at what is now Simoneau plaza; several years later, he sent Simoneau an inscribed copy of his novel Strange case. While in Monterey, stevenson wrote an evocative article about "the Old Pacific Capital monterey. By december 1879, Stevenson had recovered his health enough to continue to san Francisco, where for several months he struggled "all alone on forty-five cents a day, and sometimes less, with quantities of hard work and many heavy thoughts 43 in an effort to support. But by the end of the winter, his health was broken again and he found himself at death's door. Fanny, now divorced and recovered from her own illness, came to Stevenson's bedside and nursed him to recovery. "After a while he wrote, "my spirit got up again in a divine frenzy, and has since kicked and spurred my vile body forward with great emphasis and success." 44 When his father heard of his condition, he cabled him money to help him through. Fanny and Robert were married in may 1880, although, as he said, he was "a mere complication of cough and bones, much fitter for an emblem of mortality than a bridegroom." 45 With his new wife and her son, Lloyd, 46 he travelled north.
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Stevenson spent much of the essay following year with her and her children in France. 41 In August king 1878, fanny returned to san Francisco, california. Stevenson at first remained in Europe, making the walking trip that would form the basis for Travels with a donkey in the cévennes (1879). But in August 1879, he set off to join her, against the advice of his friends and without notifying his parents. He took second-class passage on the steamship devonia, in part to save money but also to learn how others traveled and to increase the adventure of the journey. 42 From New York city, he traveled overland by train to california. He later wrote about the experience in The Amateur Emigrant. Although it was good experience for his literature, it broke his health. He was near death when he arrived in Monterey, california, where some local ranchers nursed him back to health. In Monterey he stayed for a time at the French Hotel (located at 530 houston Street now called the " Stevenson house " after him and now a museum dedicated to his memory.
38 Marriage edit fanny van de Grift Osbourne,. 1876 The canoe voyage with Simpson brought Stevenson to Grez in September 1876, where he first met paper Fanny van de Grift Osbourne (18401914). Born in Indianapolis, she had married at age seventeen and moved to nevada to rejoin husband Samuel after his participation in the American civil War. That marriage produced three children: Isobel (or "Belle lloyd, and Hervey (who died in 1875). But anger over her husband's infidelities led to a number of separations. In 1875, she had taken her children to France, where she and Isobel studied art. 39 Although Stevenson returned to Britain shortly after this first meeting, fanny apparently remained in his thoughts, and he wrote an essay, "On falling in love for the cornhill Magazine. 40 They met again early in 1877 and became lovers.
Henley became a close friend and occasional literary collaborator, until a quarrel broke up the friendship in 1888. Henley is often seen as the model for Long John Silver in Treasure Island. 34 Stevenson was sent to menton on the French riviera in november 1873 to recuperate after his health failed. He returned in better health in April 1874 and settled down to his studies, but he returned to France several times after that. 35 he made long and frequent trips to the neighborhood of the forest of Fontainebleau, staying at Barbizon, grez-sur-loing, and Nemours and becoming a member of the artists' colonies there, as well as to paris to visit galleries and the theatres. 36 he qualified for the Scottish bar in July 1875, and his father added a brass plate to the heriot mini Row house reading "R.L. His law studies did influence his books, but he never practised law; 37 all his energies were spent in travel and writing. One of his journeys was a canoe voyage in Belgium and France with Sir Walter Simpson, a friend from the Speculative society, a frequent travel companion, and the author of The Art of Golf (1887). This trip was the basis of his first travel book an Inland voyage (1878).
1877 Stevenson was visiting a cousin in England in late 1873 when he met two people who became very important to him— sidney colvin and Fanny (Frances Jane) Sitwell. Sitwell was a 34-year-old woman with a son, who was separated from her husband. She attracted the devotion of many who met her, including Colvin, who eventually married her in 1901. Stevenson was also drawn to her, and they kept up a heated correspondence over several years in which he wavered between the role of a suitor and a son (he addressed her as "Madonna. 31 Colvin became Stevenson's literary adviser and was the first editor of Stevenson's letters after his death. Soon after their first meeting, he had placed Stevenson's first paid contribution in The portfolio —an essay titled "Roads". 32 Stevenson was soon active in London literary life, becoming acquainted with many of the writers of the time, including Andrew Lang, edmund Gosse, 33 and Leslie stephen, the editor of the cornhill Magazine who took an interest in Stevenson's work. Stephen in turn introduced him to a more important friend while visiting Edinburgh in 1875. He took stevenson with him to visit a patient at the Edinburgh Infirmary named William Ernest Henley, an energetic and talkative man with a wooden leg.
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poetry collection Underwoods, stevenson muses on his having turned from the family profession: 26 say not of me that weakly i declined The labours essay of my sires, and fled the sea, the towers we founded and the lamps we lit, to play at home with. But rather say: In the afternoon of time a strenuous family dusted from its hands The sand of granite, and beholding far Along the sounding coast its pyramids And tall memorials catch the dying sun, Smiled well content, and to this childish task Around the. In other respects too, stevenson was moving away from his upbringing. His dress became more bohemian ; he already wore his hair long, but he now took to wearing a velveteen jacket and rarely attended parties in conventional evening dress. 27 Within the limits of a strict allowance, he visited cheap pubs and brothels. 28 More importantly, he had come to reject Christianity and declared himself an atheist. 29 In January 1873, his father came across the constitution of the ljr (Liberty, justice, reverence) Club, of which Stevenson and his cousin Bob were members, which began: "Disregard everything our parents have taught us".
Questioning his son about his beliefs, he discovered the truth, leading to a long period of dissension with both parents: 30 What a damned curse i am to my parents! As my father said "you have rendered my whole life a failure". As my mother said "This is the heaviest affliction that has ever befallen me". O lord, what a pleasant thing it is to have damned the happiness of (probably) the only two people who care a damn about you in the world. Early writing and travels edit Stevenson.
In October 1864, following an improvement to his health, he was sent to robert Thomson's private school in Frederick Street, Edinburgh, where he remained until he went to university. 21 In november 1867, Stevenson entered the University of Edinburgh to study engineering. He showed from the start no enthusiasm for his studies and devoted much energy to avoiding lectures. This time was more important for the friendships he made with other students in the Speculative society (an exclusive debating club particularly with Charles Baxter, who would become Stevenson's financial agent, and with a professor, Fleeming Jenkin, whose house staged amateur drama in which Stevenson. 22 Perhaps most important at this point in his life was a cousin, robert Alan Mowbray stevenson (known as "Bob a lively and light-hearted young man who, instead of the family profession, had chosen to study art.
23 Each year during vacations, Stevenson travelled to inspect the family's engineering works—to Anstruther and Wick in 1868, with his father on his official tour of Orkney and Shetland islands lighthouses in 1869, and for three weeks to the island of Erraid in 1870. He enjoyed the travels more for the material they gave for his writing than for any engineering interest. The voyage with his father pleased him because a similar journey of Walter Scott with Robert Stevenson had provided the inspiration for Scott's 1822 novel The pirate. 24 In April 1871, Stevenson notified his father of his decision to pursue a life of letters. Though the elder Stevenson was naturally disappointed, the surprise cannot have been great, and Stevenson's mother reported that he was "wonderfully resigned" to his son's choice. To provide some security, it was agreed that Stevenson should read Law (again at Edinburgh University) and be called to the Scottish bar.
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He was a late reader, first learning at age seven list or eight, but even before this he dictated stories to his mother and nurse. 19 he compulsively wrote stories throughout his childhood. His father was proud of this interest; he had also written stories in his spare time until his own father found them and told him to "give up such nonsense and mind your business." 7 he paid for the printing of Robert's first publication. 20 Education edit In September 1857, Stevenson went book to Mr Henderson's School in India street, Edinburgh, but because of poor health stayed only a few weeks and did not return until October 1859. During his many absences he was taught by private tutors. In October 1861, he went to Edinburgh Academy, an independent school for boys, and stayed there sporadically for about fifteen months. In the autumn of 1863, he spent one term at an English boarding school at Spring Grove in Isleworth in Middlesex (now an urban area of West London).
13 Stevenson's parents were both devout and serious Presbyterians, delhi but the household was not strict in its adherence to calvinist principles. His nurse, alison Cunningham (known as Cummy 14 was more fervently religious. Her Calvinism and folk beliefs were an early source of nightmares for the child, and he showed a precocious concern for religion. 15 But she also cared for him tenderly in illness, reading to him from Bunyan and the bible as he lay sick in bed and telling tales of the covenanters. Stevenson recalled this time of sickness in "The land of counterpane" in a child's Garden of Verses (1885 16 dedicating the book to his nurse. 17 Robert louis Stevenson at the age of seven An only child, strange-looking and eccentric, Stevenson found it hard to fit in when he was sent to a nearby school at age six, a problem repeated at age eleven when he went on to the. 18 In any case, his frequent illnesses often kept him away from his first school, so he was taught for long stretches by private tutors.
of Scotland at nearby colinton, 8 and her siblings included the physician george william Balfour and the marine engineer James Balfour. Stevenson spent the greater part of his boyhood holidays in his maternal grandfather's house. "Now i often wonder wrote Stevenson, "what i inherited from this old minister. I must suppose, indeed, that he was fond of preaching sermons, and so am i, though I never heard it maintained that either of us loved to hear them." 9 Lewis Balfour and his daughter both had weak chests, so they often needed to stay. Stevenson inherited a tendency to coughs and fevers, exacerbated when the family moved to a damp, chilly house at 1 Inverleith Terrace in 1851. 10 The family moved again to the sunnier 17 Heriot Row when Stevenson was six years old, but the tendency to extreme sickness in winter remained with him until he was eleven. Illness would be a recurrent feature of his adult life and left him extraordinarily thin. 11 Contemporary views were that he had tuberculosis, but more recent views are that it was bronchiectasis 12 or even sarcoidosis.
Barrie, 3 and,. Chesterton, who said that Stevenson "seemed to pick the right word up on the point of his pen, like a man playing spillikins ". 4, contents, childhood and youth edit, daguerreotype portrait of Robert louis Stevenson as a young child Stevenson's childhood home in Heriot Row Stevenson was born at 8 Howard Place, edinburgh, scotland, on 13 november 1850, to Thomas Stevenson (181887 a leading lighthouse engineer, and his wife. He was christened Robert Lewis Balfour gender Stevenson. At about age 18, Stevenson changed the spelling of "Lewis" to "louis and in 1873, he dropped "Balfour". 5 6 Lighthouse design was the family's profession: Thomas's father (Robert's grandfather) was the famous civil engineer Robert Stevenson, and both of Thomas's brothers (Robert's uncles) Alan and david, were in the same field. 7 Indeed, even Thomas's maternal grandfather, Thomas Smith, had been in the same profession. However, robert's mother's family were not of the same profession.
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Robert louis Balfour Stevenson (13 november 1850 3 December 1894) was. Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer. His most famous works are. Treasure Island, kidnapped, strange case of Dr jekyll and Mr Hyde, and, a child's Garden of Verses. Stevenson was a literary celebrity during his lifetime, and now ranks as the 26th most translated author in the world. His works have been admired by many other writers, including. Jorge luis Borges, bertolt Brecht, marcel Proust, arthur Conan business doyle, henry james, cesare pavese, emilio salgari, ernest Hemingway, rudyard Kipling, jack london, vladimir Nabokov, 2,.