According to the theory, "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions." 42 Some theorists started to synthesize the trait and situational approaches. Building upon the research of Lewin., academics began to normalize the descriptive models of leadership climates, defining three leadership styles and identifying which situations each style works better. The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-to-day management; the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated. 43 Thus, theorists defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation, which is sometimes classified as contingency theory. Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, the path-goal theory, and the hersey-blanchard situational theory. The fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred fiedler called situational contingency.
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As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised. In this example, praise (the stimulus) is a positive reinforcer for this employee because the employee arrives at work on time (the behavior) more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time. The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates. Organizations such as Frito-lay, 3m, goodrich, michigan Bell, and Emery air Freight have all used reinforcement to increase productivity. 40 Empirical research covering the last 20 years suggests that reinforcement theory has a 17 percent increase in performance. Additionally, many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher performance for lower costs. Situational and contingency theories edit main articles: fiedler contingency model, vroomYetton decision model, pathgoal theory, and situational leadership theory situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested. Herbert Spencer (1884) (and Karl Marx ) said that the times produce the person and not the other way around. 41 This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics; according to this group resume of theories, no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists.
The model was developed by robert Blake and Jane mouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern general for people and their concern for goal achievement. 38 Positive reinforcement edit. Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future. 39 The following is an example of how positive reinforcement can be used in a business setting. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work on time every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time.
These are considered "task oriented" behaviors The second dimension is "Consideration which indicates the leader's ability to build an interpersonal relationship with their followers, to establish a form of mutual trust. These are considered "social oriented" behaviors. 36 The michigan State Studies, which were conducted in the 1950s, made further investigations and findings that positively correlated behaviors and leadership effectiveness. Although they similar findings as the Ohio state studies, they did contribute an additional behavior identified in leaders. This was participative behavior; allowing the followers to participate in group decision making and encouraged subordinate input. Another term used paper to describe this is "Servant leadership which entails the leader to reject a more controlling type of leadership and allow more personal interaction between themselves and their subordinates. 37 The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory.
32 david McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well-developed positive ego. To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even essential. 33 A graphical representation of the managerial grid model Kurt Lewin, ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making, praise and criticism ( feedback and the management of the group tasks ( project management ) according to three styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. 34 In 1945, Ohio state University conducted a study which investigated observable behaviors portrayed by effective leaders, They would then identify if these particular behaviors reflective in leadership effectiveness. They were able to narrow their findings to two identifiable distinctions 35 The first dimension was identified as "Initiating Structure which described how a leader clearly and accurately communicates with their followers, defines goals, and determine how tasks are performed.
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This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive picture of previous sending leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Equipped with new methods, leadership researchers revealed the following: Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks. 18 Significant relationships exist between leadership emergence and such individual traits as: While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks. 26 Specifically, zaccaro (2007) 26 noted that trait theories still: Focus on a small set of individual attributes such as "The big five" personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills. Fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes.
Do not distinguish between the leadership attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences. Do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership. Attribute pattern approach edit considering the criticisms essay of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual differences—the leader attribute pattern approach. In contrast to the traditional approach, the leader attribute pattern approach is based on theorists' arguments that the influence of individual characteristics on outcomes is best understood by considering the person as an integrated totality rather than a summation of individual variables. 29 31 In other words, the leader attribute pattern approach argues that integrated constellations or combinations of individual differences may explain substantial variance in both leader emergence and leader effectiveness beyond that explained by single attributes, or by additive combinations of multiple attributes. Behavioral and style theories edit main article: Managerial grid model In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles.
In Heroes and Hero worship (1841 carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. Galton's Hereditary genius (1869) examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when his focus moved from first-degree to second-degree relatives, galton concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of a leader. Cecil Rhodes (18531902) believed that public-spirited leadership could be nurtured by identifying young people with "moral force of character and instincts to lead and educating them in contexts (such as the collegiate environment of the University of Oxford ) which further developed such characteristics.
International networks of such leaders could help to promote international understanding and help "render war impossible". This vision of leadership underlay the creation of the Rhodes Scholarships, which have helped to shape notions of leadership since their creation in 1903. 14 Rise of alternative theories edit In the late 1940s and early 1950s, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., bird, 1940; 15 Stogdill, 1948; 17 ) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature, stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches (see alternative leadership theories below) posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others. The focus then shifted away from traits of leaders to an investigation of the leader behaviors that were effective. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades reemergence of trait theory edit new methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. For example, improvements in researchers' use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks. 18 Additionally, during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses, in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies.
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(Note that the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word "leadership" in English only as far back as the 19th century.) One response to this denial of élitism came with Leninism, which demanded an élite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard. Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership. The doctrines of caesaro-papism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has often emphasized stewardship of divinely provided resources—human and material—and their deployment in accordance with a divine plan. 12 For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the statesperson. Theories edit early western history edit The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has continued for centuries. Philosophical writings from Plato's Republic 13 to Plutarch's lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership citation needed and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known write as the " trait theory of leadership ". A number of works in the 19th century when the traditional authority of monarchs, lords and bishops had begun to wane explored the trait theory at length: note especially the writings of Thomas Carlyle and of Francis Galton, whose works have prompted decades of research.
Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness. Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness. Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence. Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty. When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can be a leader. — sun tzu 11 Machiavelli's The Prince, written in the early 16th century, textbooks provided a manual for rulers princes" or "tyrants" in Machiavelli's terminology) to gain and keep power. In the 19th century the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question.
or genes. Monarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, and may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction (see the divine right of kings ). Contrariwise, more democratically inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent. 8 In the autocratic / paternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the roman pater familias. Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may object to such models as patriarchal and posit against them emotionally attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic guidance, which is sometimes associated with matriarchies. 9 Comparable to the roman tradition, the views of Confucianism on "right living" relate very much to the ideal of the (male) scholar-leader and his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety. 10 leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and discipline.
By clicking continue below and using our sites or applications, you agree that we and our third party advertisers can: transfer your personal data to the United States or other countries, and process your personal data to serve you with personalized ads, subject to your. Eu data subject Requests. For other uses, see. Leadership is both a research area and a practical skill encompassing the ability of an individual or organization to "lead" or guide other individuals, teams, or entire organizations. Citation needed, specialist literature debates various viewpoints, contrasting. Eastern and, western approaches to leadership, and also (within the west) United States versus European approaches. Academic environments define leadership as "a process of social influence in which a person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task ". 1 2, leadership seen from a european and non-academic perspective encompasses a view of a leader who can be moved not only by communitarian shredder goals but also by the search for personal power. 3, studies of leadership have produced theories involving traits, 4 situational interaction, function, behavior, 5 power, vision and values, 6 charisma, and intelligence, among others.
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