We can see the "global cute" by the billion-dollar sellers like pokémon and Hello kitty. 37 "Fueled by Internet subcultures, hello kitty alone has hundreds of entries on ebay, and is selling in more than 30 countries, including Argentina, bahrain, and taiwan." 37 Japan has become a powerhouse in the kawaii industry and images of Doraemon, hello kitty, pikachu, sailor. However, Professor tian Shenliang says that Japan's future is dependent on how much of an impact kawaii brings to humanity. 38 The japanese foreign Ministry has also recognized the power of cute merchandise and have sent three 18-year-old women overseas in the hopes of spreading Japanese culture around the world. The women are dressed in uniforms and maid costumes that are commonplace in Japan. 39 Kawaii manga and magazines have brought tremendous profit to japanese press industry. 40 Moreover, the worldwide revenue from the computer game and its merchandising peripherals are closing in on 5 billion, according to a nintendo press release titled "It's a pokémon Planet". 37 Influence upon other cultures edit kawaii products are seemingly gaining more popularity beyond the borders of Japan into other Asian markets, and it's seemingly becoming more popular in the us, especially among the young anime and manga fans as well as among those who.
Japanese, east Asian Languages and civilizations
Sanrio, the company behind Hello kitty and other similarly cute characters, runs the sanrio puroland theme park in tokyo, and painted on some eva air Airbus A330 jets as well. Sanrios line of more than 50 characters takes in more than 1 billion a year and it remains the most successful company to capitalize on the cute trend. 31 Cute can be also used to describe a specific fashion sense 34 35 of an individual, and generally includes clothing that appears to be made for young children, apart from the size, or clothing that accentuates the cuteness of the individual wearing the clothing. Ruffles and pastel colors are commonly (but not always) featured, and accessories often include toys or bags featuring anime characters. 31 Non- kawaii imports edit kawaii goods outlet in 100 yen shop There have been occasions in which popular Western products failed to meet the expectations of kawaii, and thus did not do well in the japanese market. For example, desk cabbage patch Kids dolls did not sell well in Japan, because the japanese considered their facial features to be "ugly" and "grotesque" compared to the flatter and almost featureless faces of characters such as Hello kitty. 11 Also, the doll Barbie, portraying an adult woman, did not become successful in Japan compared to takara's Licca, a doll that was modeled after an 11-year-old girl. 11 Kawaii has gradually gone from a small subculture in Japan to an important part of Japanese modern culture as a whole. There is an overwhelming amount of modern items featuring kawaii themes, not only in Japan, but worldwide. 36 And characters associated with kawaii have an astounding popularity these days.
22 31 Many companies, large and small, use cute mascots to present their wares and services to the public. For example: pikachu, a character from pokémon, adorns the side of ten ana passenger jets, the pokémon Jets. Asahi bank used Miffy (Nijntje a character from a dutch series of children's picture books, on some of its atm and credit cards. The prefectures of Japan, as well as many cities and cultural institutions, have cute mascot characters known as yuru-chara to promote tourism. Kumamon, the kumamoto Prefecture mascot, and hikonyan, the city of hikone mascot, are among the most popular. 32 The japan Post "yū-pack" mascot is a stylized mailbox; 33 they also use other cute mascot characters to promote their various services (among them the postal savings Bank) and have used many such on postage stamps. Some police forces in Japan have their own moe mascots, which sometimes adorn the front of kōban (police boxes). Nhk, the public broadcaster, has its own cute mascots. Domokun, the unique-looking and widely general recognized nhk mascot, was introduced in 1998 and quickly took on a life of its own, appearing in Internet memes and fan art around the world.
Some men decide to transform themselves into women, more specifically kawaii women. They are able to transform themselves by wearing wigs, false eyelashes, applying makeup, and wearing kawaii female clothing. 29 This is seen predominately in male entertainers, such as Torideta-san, a dj who transforms himself into a kawaii woman when working at his nightclub. 29 Japanese pop stars and actors often have longer hair, such as takuya kimura of list smap. Men are also noted as often aspiring to a neotenic look. While it doesn't quite fit the exact specifications of what cuteness means for females, men are certainly influenced by the same societal mores - to be diary attractive in a specific sort of way that the society finds acceptable." 30 In this way both Japanese men. Products edit The concept of kawaii has had an influence on a variety of products, including candy, such as hi-chew, koala's March and Hello panda. Cuteness can be added to products by adding cute features, such as hearts, flowers, stars and rainbows. Cute elements can be found almost everywhere in Japan, from big business to corner markets and national government, ward, and town offices.
28 Decora edit Example of Decora fashion Decora is a style that is characterized by wearing lots of "decorations" on oneself. It is considered to be self-decoration. The goal of this fashion is to become as vibrant and characterized as possible. People who take part in this fashion trend wear accessories such as multicolor hair pins, bracelets, rings, necklaces, etc. By adding on multiple layers of accessories on an outfit, the fashion trend tends to have a childlike appearance. It also includes toys and multicolor clothes. Kawaii men edit Although kawaii is typically a female-dominated fashion, there are men who decide to partake in this trend.
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25 This look is achieved with lace, ribbons, bows, ruffles, bloomers, aprons, and ruffled petticoats. Parasols, chunky mary jane heels, and bo peep collars are also very popular. 26 Sweet Lolita is a subset of Lolita fashion that includes even more ribbons, bows, and lace, and is often fabricated out of pastels and other light essay colors. Another subset of Lolita fashion related to "sweet Lolita" is fairy kei. Head-dresses such as giant bows or bonnets are also very common, while lighter make-up is also used to achieve a more natural look. Curled hair books extensions, sometimes accompanied by eyelash extensions, are also popular in helping with the baby doll look.
27 Themes such as fruits, flowers and sweets are often used as patterns on the fabrics used for dresses. Purses often go with the themes and are shaped as hearts, strawberries, or stuffed animals. Baby, the Stars Shine Bright is one of the more popular clothing stores for this style and often carries themes. Mannerisms are also important to many Sweet Lolitas. Sweet Lolita is not only a fashion, but also a lifestyle. 27 This is evident in the 2004 film Kamikaze girls where the main Lolita character, momoko, drinks only tea and eats only sweets.
20 It was a neologism developed in the 1980s by comedian Kuniko yamada yamada kuniko ). 20 Physical attractiveness edit In Japan, being cute is acceptable for both men and women. A trend existed of men shaving their legs to mimic the neotenic look. Japanese women often try to act cute to attract men. 22 A study by kanebo, a cosmetic company, found that Japanese women in their 20s and 30s favored the "cute look" with a "childish round face". 14 Women also employ a look of innocence in order to further play out this idea of cuteness.
Having large eyes is one aspect that exemplifies innocence; therefore many japanese women attempt to alter the size of their eyes. To create this illusion, women may wear large contact lenses, false eyelashes, dramatic eye makeup, and even have an East Asian blepharoplasty, commonly known as double eyelid surgery. 23 Idols edit Idols aidoru ) are media personalities in their teens and twenties who are considered particularly attractive or cute and who will, for a period ranging from several months to a few years, regularly appear in the mass media,. As singers for pop groups, bit-part actors, tv personalities ( tarento models in photo spreads published in magazines, advertisements, etc. (But not every young celebrity is considered an idol. Young celebrities who wish to cultivate a rebellious image, such as many rock musicians, reject the "idol" label.) Speed, morning Musume, akb48, and Momoiro Clover z are examples of popular idol groups in Japan during the 2000s 2010s. 24 Cute fashion edit lolita edit lolita fashion is a very well-known and recognizable style in Japan. Based on Victorian fashion and the rococo period, girls mix in their own elements along with gothic style to achieve the porcelain-doll look. 25 The girls who dress in Lolita fashion try to look cute, innocent, and beautiful.
Japanese, language official Language of, japan
Women began to emulate seiko matsuda and her cute fashion style and mannerisms, which emphasized the helplessness and innocence of young girls. 16 The market for cute merchandise in Japan used to be driven by japanese girls between 15 and 18 years old. 17 no longer limited to teenagers, the spread of making things as cute as possible, even common household items, is embraced by people of all ages. Aesthetics edit kawaii styled luggage soichi masubuchi masubuchi Sōichi in his work kawaii syndrome, claims "cute" and "neat" have taken precedence over the former Japanese aesthetics of "beautiful" and "refined". 11 As a cultural phenomenon, cuteness summary is increasingly accepted in Japan as a part of Japanese culture and national identity. Tomoyuki sugiyama sugiyama tomoyuki author of cool Japan, believes that "cuteness" is rooted in Japan's harmony-loving culture, and Nobuyoshi kurita kurita nobuyoshi a sociology professor at Musashi University in tokyo, has stated that "cute" is a "magic term" that encompasses everything that is acceptable and. 18 Gender performance edit japanese women who feign kawaii behaviors (e.g., high-pitched voice, squealing giggles 19 ) that could be viewed as forced or inauthentic are called burikko and this is considered a gender performance. 20 The term burikko is formed with buri (, " amberjack a fish a pun on furi (, "to pretend or pose 21 and ko (, 'child.
His conclusion was based on an observation that cute handwriting predates the availability of technical means for producing rounded writing in comics. 12 Cute merchandise edit kawaii doll paper Tomoyuki sugiyama sugiyama tomoyuki author of cool Japan, says cute fashion in Japan can be traced back to the Edo period with the popularity of netsuke. 14 Because of this growing trend, companies such as Sanrio came out with merchandise like hello kitty. Hello kitty was an immediate success and the obsession with cute continued to progress in other areas as well. More recently, sanrio has released kawaii characters with deeper personalities that appeal to an older audience, such as Gudetama and Aggretsuko. These characters have enjoyed strong popularity as fans are drawn to their unique quirks in addition to their cute aesthetics. S also saw the rise of cute idols, such as seiko matsuda, who is largely credited with popularizing the trend.
and "pitiable." Cute handwriting edit. 12 Many teenage girls began to write laterally using mechanical pencils. 12 These pencils produced very fine lines, as opposed to traditional Japanese writing that varied in thickness and was vertical. 12 The girls would also write in big, round characters and they added little pictures to their writing, such as hearts, stars, emoticon faces, and letters of the latin alphabet. 12 These pictures would be inserted randomly and made the writing difficult to read. 12 As a result, this writing style caused a lot of controversy and was banned in many schools. 12 During the 1980s, however, this new "cute" writing was adopted by magazines and comics and was put onto packaging and advertising. to 1986, kazuma yamane yamane kazuma ) studied the development of cute handwriting, which he called Anomalous Female teenage handwriting, in depth. 12 This type of cute japanese handwriting has also been called: marui ji ( meaning "round writing koneko ji ( meaning "kitten writing manga ji ( meaning "comic writing and burikko ji ( meaning "fake-child writing". 13 Although it was commonly thought that the writing style was something that teenagers had picked up from comics, he found that teenagers had come up with the style themselves, spontaneously, as an underground trend.
The second morpheme is cognate with -bayu in mabayui, or ) "dazzling, glaring, blinding, too bright; dazzlingly beautiful" ( ma- is from me "eye and -hayu in omohayui ( or ) "embarrassed/embarrassing, awkward, feeling self-conscious/making one feel self-conscious" ( omo- is from omo, an archaic. Over time, the meaning changed into the modern meaning of "cute and the pronunciation changed to kawayui and then to the modern kawaii. 8 9 10 It is most commonly written in hiragana, but the ateji, summary has also been appended. The kanji in the ateji literally translates to "able to be loved, can/may love, lovable." History edit Original definition edit kogal girl, identified by her shortened skirt. The soft bag and teddy bear that she carries are part of kawaii. The original definition of kawaii came from Lady murasaki's The tale of Genji, where it referred to pitiable qualities. 11 During the Shogunate period under the ideology of neo-confucianism, women came to be included under the term kawaii as the perception of women being animalistic was replaced with the conception of women as docile. 11 However, the earlier meaning survives in the modern Standard Japanese adjectival noun kawaisō (often written with ateji as or ) "piteous, pitiable, arousing compassion, poor, sad, sorry" (etymologically from "face / projecting, reflecting, or transmitting light, flushing, blushing / seeming, appearance.
It s all Kawaii: Cuteness in, japanese, culture
Not to be confused with, hawaii, kauai, or, kawaiisu. For other uses, see. Kawaii pronounced kaɰaii ; "lovable "cute or "adorable 1 is the culture of cuteness in Japan. 2 3 4 5, it can refer to items, humans and nonhumans that are charming, vulnerable, shy and childlike. 2, examples include cute handwriting, certain genres of manga, and, hello kitty. 6, the cuteness culture, or kawaii aesthetic, has become a prominent aspect. Japanese popular culture, entertainment, clothing, food, toys, personal appearance and mannerisms. 7, contents, etymology edit, cute manga drawing using kawaii basis (illustration by daya wyrd). The word kawaii originally derives from the phrase kao hayushi, which paper literally means one's) face (is) aglow commonly used to refer to flushing or blushing of the face.